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New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has gradually influ ...

                                               

Pollution haven hypothesis

The pollution haven hypothesis posits that, when large industrialized nations seek to set up factories or offices abroad, they will often look for the cheapest option in terms of resources and labor that offers the land and material access they r ...

                                               

Urban ecology

Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commer ...

                                               

Abiotic component

In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems. Abiotic factors and the phenomena associated with them und ...

                                               

Algatron

The Algatron was a proposed and prototyped waste filtration and recycling system to be implemented on NASA missions. Designed and built by a pair of sanitary engineers at the University of California, Berkley William J. Oswald and Clarence Goluek ...

                                               

Anoxic event

Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events were intervals in the Earths past where portions of oceans became depleted in oxygen at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia, waters that contained hydrogen sulfide, H 2 ...

                                               

Aquatic biomonitoring

Aquatic biomonitoring is the science of inferring the ecological condition of rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands by examining the organisms that live there. While aquatic biomonitoring is the most common form of biomonitoring, any ecosystem can ...

                                               

Arctic ecology

Arctic ecology is the scientific study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in the arctic, the region north of the Arctic Circle. This region is characterized by stressful conditions as a result of extreme cold, low precipitati ...

                                               

Assimitron

The Assimitron was a Japanese device uses to measure fluctuating CO2 levels at crop canopies. Led by E. Inoue at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Tsukuba, Japan, the device itself was an offshoot of an earlier Australian inventi ...

                                               

Association of Environmental Professionals

The Association of Environmental Professionals is a California-based non-profit organization of interdisciplinary professionals including environmental science, resource management, environmental planning and other professions contributing to thi ...

                                               

Bioanalytical equivalent

A bioanalytical equivalent is a unit of measure in the field of bioassays. It is used for example in the bioassay CALUX for testing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.

                                               

Bioassay

A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues. Bioassays are quantitative biological assays used to estimate the potency of agents by observing their effects on li ...

                                               

Biochemical oxygen demand

Biochemical oxygen demand is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The BOD value is most commonly e ...

                                               

Bioconcentration

Bioconcentration is the accumulation of a chemical in or on an organism when the source of chemical is solely water. Bioconcentration is a term that was created for use in the field of aquatic toxicology. Bioconcentration can also be defined as t ...

                                               

Biological integrity

Biological integrity is associated with how "pristine" an environment is and its function relative to the potential or original state of an ecosystem before human alterations were imposed. Biological integrity is built on the assumption that a de ...

                                               

Biological monitoring working party

The biological monitoring working party is a procedure for measuring water quality using families of macroinvertebrates as biological indicators. The method is based on the principle that different aquatic invertebrates have different tolerances ...

                                               

Bioreporter

Bioreporters are intact, living microbial cells that have been genetically engineered to produce a measurable signal in response to a specific chemical or physical agent in their environment. Bioreporters contain two essential genetic elements, a ...

                                               

Biosand filter

A biosand filter. is a point-of-use water treatment system adapted from traditional slow sand filters. Biosand filters remove pathogens and suspended solids from water using biological and physical processes that take place in a sand column cover ...

                                               

Biosurvey

Biosurveys are used by government agencies responsible for management of public lands, environmental planning and/or environmental regulation to assess ecological resources, such as rivers, streams, lakes and wetlands. They involve collection and ...

                                               

Biotic index

Biotic Index is a scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it. It is often used to assess the quality of water in rivers. It is measured from 1 to 10 and corresponds to the four basic water q ...

                                               

Black carbon

Chemically, black carbon is a component of fine particulate matter. Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthrop ...

                                               

Bren School of Environmental Science & Management

The Bren School of Environmental Science & Management is a graduate professional school at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The mission of the Bren School is to play a leading role in researching environmental issues, identifying and ...

                                               

British Oceanographic Data Centre

The British Oceanographic Data Centre is a national facility for looking after and distributing data about the marine environment. BODC is the designated marine science data centre for the UK and part of the National Oceanography Centre - primari ...

                                               

Building engineering physics

The term building engineering physics was introduced in a report released in January 2010 commissioned by The Royal Academy of Engineering. The report, entitled Engineering a Low Carbon Built Environment: The Discipline of Building Engineering Ph ...

                                               

CALIPSO

CALIPSO is a joint NASA and CNES environmental satellite, built in the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, which was launched atop a Delta II rocket on April 28, 2006. Its name stands for Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observati ...

                                               

Carbon Disclosure Project

The CDP is an organisation based in the United Kingdom which supports companies and cities to disclose the environmental impact of major corporations. It aims to make environmental reporting and risk management a business norm, and drive disclosu ...

                                               

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database is a public website and research tool launched in November 2004 that curates scientific data describing relationships between chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, GO annotations, pat ...

                                               

CompTox Chemicals Dashboard

The CompTox Chemicals Dashboard is a freely accessible online database created and maintained by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The database provides access to multiple types of data including physicochemical properties, environmental ...

                                               

Contamination

Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

                                               

Core sample

A core sample is a cylindrical section of a naturally occurring substance. Most core samples are obtained by drilling with special drills into the substance, for example sediment or rock, with a hollow steel tube called a core drill. The hole mad ...

                                               

Criteria air pollutants

Criteria air pollution or contaminants, is a set of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain and other health hazards. Caps typically emitted from many sources in industry, mining, transportation, electricity production and agriculture. In many ...

                                               

Defoliant

A defoliant is any herbicidal chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off. Defoliants are widely used for the selective removal of weeds in managing croplands and lawns. Worldwide use of defoliants, along with the devel ...

                                               

DICE model

The Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy model, referred to as the DICE model or Dice model, is a computer-based integrated assessment model developed by 2018 Nobel Laureate William Nordhaus that" integrates in an end-to-end fashion the economics, ...

                                               

Double diversion

The double diversion is two-part theory about environmental harm that was developed by William Freudenburg and colleagues beginning in the 1990s, and focusing on "disproportionality" and "distraction." The concept of disproportionality involves t ...

                                               

Dual segmented Langmuir probe

Dual Segmented Langmuir Probe is an instrument developed primarily by Czech researchers and engineers to study the magnetospheric background plasma flown on board the spacecraft of the European Space Agency Proba 2. Data acquired by DSLP will be ...

                                               

Ecological forecasting

Ecological forecasting uses knowledge of physics, ecology and physiology to predict how ecological populations, communities, or ecosystems will change in the future in response to environmental factors such as climate change. The ultimate goal of ...

                                               

Ecotechnology

Ecotechnology is an applied science that seeks to fulfill human needs while causing minimal ecological disruption, by harnessing and manipulating natural forces to leverage their beneficial effects. Ecotechnology integrates two fields of study: t ...

                                               

Effluent

Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to a natural body of water, from a structure such as a wastewater treatment plant, sewer pipe, or industrial outfall. Effluent, in engineering, is the stream exiting a chemical reactor.

                                               

Eggatron

The Eggatron was a digital counter that recorded when an egg was laid in an effort to determine the most productive hens. The device was tested using battery cages at CSIROs Poultry Research Centre at Werribee. As each egg was laid, it would roll ...

                                               

Emissions budget

An emissions budget, carbon budget, emissions quota, or allowable emissions, is an upper limit of total carbon dioxide emissions associated with remaining below a specific global average temperature. An emissions budget may also be associated wit ...

                                               

Environmental analysis

Environmental analysis is the use of analytical chemistry and other techniques to study the environment. The purpose of this is commonly to monitor and study levels of pollutants in the atmosphere, rivers and other specific settings. Other enviro ...

                                               

Environmental archaeology

Environmental archaeology is a sub-field of archaeology which emerged in 1970s and is the science of reconstructing the relationships between past societies and the environments they lived in. The field represents an archaeological-palaeoecologic ...

                                               

Environmental biotechnology

Environmental biotechnology is biotechnology that is applied to and used to study the natural environment. Environmental biotechnology could also imply that one try to harness biological process for commercial uses and exploitation. The Internati ...

                                               

Environmental data rescue

Environmental data rescue is a collection of processes, including photography and scanning, that stores historical and modern environmental data in a usable format. The data is then analyzed and used in scientific models. Historical weather infor ...

                                               

Environmental Effects of Illicit Drug Production

The environmental impacts caused by the production of illicit drugs is an often neglected topic when analysing the effects of such substances. However, due to the clandestine nature of illicit drug production, its effects can be highly destructiv ...

                                               

Environmental hormones

Environmental hormones are chemical compounds that resembles endocrine hormones. They may be either of natural origin, such as phytoestrogens, or of synthetic origin. These compounds are able to activate the same endocrine receptors as their natu ...

                                               

Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products is currently being widely investigated. PPCPs include substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost gro ...

                                               

Environmental impact statement

An environmental impact statement, under United States environmental law, is a document required by the 1969 National Environmental Policy Act for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment". An EIS is a tool fo ...

                                               

Environmental modelling

Environmental modelling is the creation and use of mathematical models of the environment. Environmental modelling may be used purely for research purposes and improved understanding of environmental systems, for providing an interdisciplinary an ...

                                               

Environmental soil science

Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. Environmental soil science addresses both the fundamental ...