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Postmodern philosophy

Postmodern philosophy is a philosophical movement that arose in the second half of the 20th century as a critical response to assumptions allegedly present in modernist philosophical ideas regarding culture, identity, history, or language that we ...

                                               

Pragmatism

Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Its origins are often attributed to the philosophers Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Peirce later described it in his pragmatic maxim: "Co ...

                                               

Preformationism

In the history of biology, preformationism is a formerly popular theory that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves. Instead of assembly from parts, preformationists believed that the form of living things exist, in real terms, p ...

                                               

Pseudoskepticism

Pseudoskepticism is a philosophical or scientific position which appears to be that of skepticism or scientific skepticism but which in reality fails to be so.

                                               

Quantification (science)

In mathematics and empirical science, quantification is the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities. Quantification in this sense is fundamental to the scientific method.

                                               

Quasi-empirical method

Quasi-empirical methods are methods applied in science and mathematics to achieve epistemology similar to that of empiricism when experience cannot falsify the ideas involved. Empirical research relies on empirical evidence, and its empirical met ...

                                               

Ramsey sentence

Ramsey sentences are formal logical reconstructions of theoretical propositions attempting to draw a line between science and metaphysics. A Ramsey sentence aims at rendering propositions containing non-observable theoretical terms clear by subst ...

                                               

Ramsey–Lewis method

The Ramsey–Lewis method is a method for defining terms found in theoretical frameworks, credited to Frank P. Ramsey and David Lewis. By using this method, a set of theoretical terms appearing in a theory can be defined implicitly by the assertion ...

                                               

Reproducibility

Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out with same methodology described in the corresponding scientific evidence. Reproducibility can also be applied under changed co ...

                                               

Revisionary materialism

Revisionary materialism is the view that falls between eliminative materialism and reductive materialism when it comes to a particular psychological phenomenon. Take, for example, debates over the reality of a psychological concept like "demonolo ...

                                               

Role of chance in scientific discoveries

The role of chance, or luck ", in science comprises all ways in which unexpected discoveries are made. Many domains, especially psychology, are concerned with the way science interacts with chance - particularly "serendipity". Psychologist Kevin ...

                                               

Sabato triangle

The Sabato triangle is a model concerned with linkages between science, industry and government, which has informed discussions of science policy throughout Latin America. It was developed during the 1960s and 1970s by the Argentine physicist and ...

                                               

Science of morality

The science of morality may refer to various forms of ethical naturalism grounding morality in rational, empirical consideration of the natural world. It is sometimes framed as using the scientific approach to determine what is right and wrong, i ...

                                               

Scientific consensus

Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study. Consensus implies general agreement, though not necessarily unanimity. Consensus is achieved through communicati ...

                                               

Scientific controversy

A scientific controversy is a substantial disagreement among scientists. A scientific controversy may involve issues such as the interpretation of data, which ideas are most supported by evidence, and which ideas are most worth pursuing. For exam ...

                                               

Scientific temper

The Scientific temper is a way of life which uses the scientific method and which may, consequently, include questioning, observing physical reality, testing, hypothesizing, analysing, and communicating. "Scientific temper" describes an attitude ...

                                               

Serendipity

Serendipity is the occurrence of an unplanned fortunate discovery. Serendipity is a common occurrence throughout the history of product invention and scientific discovery. Serendipity is also seen as a potential design principle for online activi ...

                                               

Simple (philosophy)

In contemporary mereology, a simple is any thing that has no proper parts. Sometimes the term "atom" is used, although in recent years the term "simple" has become the standard. Simples are to be contrasted with atomless gunk where something is " ...

                                               

Special sciences

Special sciences are those sciences other than fundamental physics, that are presumed to be reducible to fundamental physics, at least in principle. In this view, chemistry, biology, and neuroscience - indeed, all sciences except fundamental phys ...

                                               

Stage theory

Stage theories are based on the idea that elements in systems move through a pattern of distinct stages over time and that these stages can be described based on their distinguishing characteristics. Specifically, stages in cognitive development ...

                                               

Subjectivity

Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Three common definitions include that subjectivity is the quality or condition of: Som ...

                                               

A System of Logic

A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive is an 1843 book by English philosopher John Stuart Mill. In this work, he formulated the five principles of inductive reasoning that are known as Mills Methods. This work is important in the philosop ...

                                               

Systems philosophy

Systems philosophy is a discipline aimed at constructing a new philosophy by using systems concepts. The discipline was first described by Ervin Laszlo in his 1972 book Introduction to Systems Philosophy: Toward a New Paradigm of Contemporary Tho ...

                                               

Testability

Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components: The practical feasibility of observing a reproducible series of such counterexamples if they do exist. The logical property that is variously described as conti ...

                                               

Theory choice

Theory choice was a main problem in the philosophy of science in the early 20th century, and under the impact of the new and controversial theories of relativity and quantum physics, came to involve how scientists should choose between competing ...

                                               

Thought collective

A thought collective, a term originated in German as Denkkollektiv by the Polish and Israeli physician Ludwik Fleck, is a community of researchers who interact collectively towards the production or elaboration of knowledge using a shared framewo ...

                                               

Transcendental realism

Not to be confused with F. W. J. Schellings transcendental realism, Arthur Schopenhauers transcendental realism, or Julius Evolas transcendental realism. Initially developed by Roy Bhaskar in his book A Realist Theory of Science, transcendental r ...

                                               

Truth by consensus

In philosophy, truth by consensus is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them. Imre Lakatos characterizes it as a "watered down" form of provable truth propounded by some sociologists of knowledg ...

                                               

Universology

Universology literally means "the science of the universe." Popularizing universologic science was a lifes work for 19th century intellectual Stephen Pearl Andrews, a futurist utopian. The word can be used synonymously with consilience, a term Ed ...

                                               

Vitalism

Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things". Where vitalism explicitly invoke ...

                                               

Working hypothesis

A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further research in the hope that a tenable theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails. Like all hypotheses, a working hypothesis is construc ...

                                               

Wronger than wrong

Wronger than wrong is a statement that equates two errors when one of the errors is clearly more wrong than the other. It was described by Michael Shermer as Asimovs axiom. The mistake was discussed in Isaac Asimovs book of essays The Relativity ...

                                               

Zilsel Thesis

The Zilsel thesis in the history and philosophy of science proposes an explanation for why modern science emerged in the early 17th century in Western Europe and not in other places or eras.

                                               

Case Law of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office

The Case Law of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office is a book, published by the European Patent Office, which summarizes the body of case law on the European Patent Convention developed by the Boards of Appeal of the EPO since the ...

                                               

The Critical Legal Studies Movement

The Critical Legal Studies Movement is a book by the philosopher and politician Roberto Mangabeira Unger. First published in 1983 as an article in the Harvard Law Review, published in book form in 1986, and reissued with a new introduction in 201 ...

                                               

Law and the Modern Mind

Law and the Modern Mind is a 1930 book by Jerome Frank which argued that judicial decisions were more influenced by psychological factors than by objective legal premises. Frank, then a legal academic, published the book after having undergone si ...

                                               

Law in Modern Society

Law in Modern Society: Toward a Criticism of Social Theory is a 1976 book by philosopher and politician Roberto Mangabeira Unger. In the book, Unger uses the rise and decline of the rule of law as a vehicle to explore certain problems in social t ...

                                               

The Province of Jurisprudence Determined

The Province of Jurisprudence Determined is a book written by John Austin, first published in 1832, in which he sets out his theory of law generally known as the command theory. Austin believed that the science of general jurisprudence consisted ...

                                               

Pure Theory of Law

Pure Theory of Law is a book by legal theorist Hans Kelsen, first published in 1934 and in a greatly expanded "second edition" in 1960. The second edition appeared in English translation in 1967, as Pure Theory of Law, the first edition in Englis ...

                                               

Taking Rights Seriously

Taking Rights Seriously is a 1977 book about the philosophy of law by the philosopher Ronald Dworkin. In the book, Dworkin argues against the dominant philosophy of Anglo-American legal positivism as presented by H. L. A. Hart in The Concept of L ...

                                               

What Should Legal Analysis Become?

What Should Legal Analysis Become? is a book by philosopher and politician Roberto Mangabeira Unger. First published in 1996, the book germinated from lectures Unger gave at Yale Law School, Columbia Law School, and the London School of Economics ...

                                               

Fiqh

Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah. Fiqh expands and develops Shariah through interpretati ...

                                               

Ahkam

Ahkam) is an Islamic term with several meanings. In the Quran, the word hukm is variously used to mean arbitration, judgement, authority, or Gods will. In the early Islamic period, the Kharijites gave it political connotations by declaring that t ...

                                               

Ahl al-Hadith

Ahl al-Hadith was an Islamic school of thought that first emerged during the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries of the Islamic era as a movement of hadith scholars who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only authority in matters of law an ...

                                               

Al-Kaffarah

Al-Kaffarah is a term in Islamic law meaning the expiration of sin, referred to special sanction to compensate for the offense or sin when the particular for violation or unintentional murder is committed. Kaffarah is paid violating some action l ...

                                               

Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith

Nawawis Forty is a compilation of forty hadiths by Imam al-Nawawi, most of which are from Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari. This collection of hadith has been particularly valued over the centuries because it is a distillation, by one of the mos ...

                                               

Ali Khamenei's fatwa against nuclear weapons

A fatwa by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, against the acquisition, development and use of nuclear weapons dates back to the mid-1990s though its first public announcement is reported to have occurred on October 2003, which wa ...

                                               

Amman Message

The Amman Message is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan. Subsequently, a three-point ruling was issued by 200 Islamic scholars from over ...

                                               

'Aql

Aql, is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind. It is the normal translation of the Greek term nous. In jurisprudence, it is associated with using reason as a s ...

                                               

Awza'i

The Awzai madhhab was one of the schools of Fiqh, the Islamic jurisprudence, or religious law within Sunni Islam in the 8th century. Its Imam was Abd al-Rahman al-Awzai.