★ History


Event (philosophy)

Jaegwon Kim theorized that events are structured. They consist of three things: He objects the basic generic events may be best picked against a scientific theory, whether the theory is a theory about the behavior of middle sized objects, or very complex physical theory. They are some of the important properties in relation to the theories in which lawful regularities can be discovered, described and explained. The main parameters in terms of which the laws of the theory are formulated would, in their opinion, give us our basic generic events, and the usual logical, mathematical, and perha ...


★ History

History is the past, as set forth in written documents and their study. Events occurring prior to written language, are considered Background. "History" is a General term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, representation and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

The story also includes the scientific discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness in discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself but as a way of providing "perspective" on the issues of the day.

Stories specific to the culture, but not supported by external sources, such as the tales surrounding king Arthur are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of History. Herodotus in the 5th century BC Greek historian is often viewed within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", or "father of lies", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the basis for the study of human history. Their works continue to be read today and the divide between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides is still a controversial issue, or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state Chronicle the spring and autumn annals, known to have been compiled in 722 BC, Although it survived only 2nd century BC Texts.

Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over centuries and continues to change. The modern study of history is wide, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical research. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and scientific study of history is an important subject in high school.


1. Etymology. (Этимология)

History the word comes from the ancient Greek ἱστορία history, the meaning of the query, knowledge from inquiry, or judge. It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his History of animals. The ancestor of the word ἵστωρ attested in Homeric hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes oath, and Boiotic inscriptions. The Greek word was borrowed into classical Latin and history, that is, "investigation, inquiry, study, account, description, record of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, story, narrative." The story was borrowed from Latin, perhaps via old Irish or old Welsh in Old English as stær, but these words went out of use in the late old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became old French and Anglo-Norman, history developed in forms such as istorie, estoire, and the publication of the historie, with new developments meaning "the light of the events of human life the early 12th century Chronicles, the record of events as related to the group of people or people in General 1155, dramatic or artistic representation of historical events S. 1240, the amount of knowledge about the evolution of man, science of S. 1265, a narrative about a real or imaginary events, the story c. 1462".

He was of Anglo-Norman history, which was borrowed into middle English, and this time the credit is stuck. It appears in the 13th century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with early confirmation, is mentioned in the gospel of John Gowers confession Amantis VI in the 1390s.1383: "I find in the side compiled | this matiere an old story, | which comth Nou to Mi Memoire". In middle English, the meaning of history was "History" in General. The limit on the value of "branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, ESP. of human Affairs," appeared in the mid-15th century. With the Renaissance, the old sense of the word was revived, and he was in the Greek sense that Francis bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "natural history". According to him, the past is "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", this kind of knowledge derived from memory, while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy.

In the expression of the linguistic synthetic and analytical / isolation dichotomy, English like Chinese 史 and 诌 now calls separate words for human history and storytelling in General. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and highly inflected, the same word is used to mean both history and story. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" provides evidence from 1531. In all European languages, the main story is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scientific study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished by great letters, or the word historiography. The adjective historical confirmation from 1661, and historic from 1669.


2. Description. (Описание)

Historians write in the context of their own time, and with regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. According to Benedetto Croce, "all history is contemporary history". History contributes to the formation of "a true discourse of the past" due to the production of a description and analysis of past events relevant to the human race. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse.

All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record. The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most effectively contribute to obtain accurate accounts of the past. Thus, the Constitution of the historians archive is a result of the imposition of a more General archive by recognizing the illegal use of certain texts and documents, falsifying their claims to represent the "true past".

The study of history is sometimes classified as part of the Humanities and at other times within the social Sciences. This can also be seen as a bridge between two broad fields, including techniques from both. Individual historians strongly support one or the other classification. In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as Economics, anthropology and geography in the study of world history.

Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by transmitting the oral tradition, and trying to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. From the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In General, the sources of historical knowledge can be divided into three categories: what is written, what is said and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three. But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.

Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once found, to promote the study of history. But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries. However, archaeology is a series of techniques and approaches which are independent from history, that is to say, archaeology does not "fill the gaps" in textual sources. Indeed "historical archaeology" is a specific branch of archaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. For example, mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical Annapolis, Maryland, USA, seeks to understand the contradiction between textual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth apparent by examining the total historical environment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at this time.

There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive and overlap, are often present, as in "the International womens movement in the age of transition, 1830-1975." It is possible for historians to engage with a very specific and very General, although the modern trend towards specialization. The area called Big history resists this specialization, and the search for universal patterns and trends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical purposes, but can also be studied out of simple curiosity.


3. History and prehistory. (История и предистория)

World history is the memory of the past experience of Homo sapiens around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written sources. By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge about the past in an area where no written records or where the writing culture is not understood. By studying painting, drawings, sculptures and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in case of absence in writing. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid historys implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as Africa South of the Sahara and pre-Columbian America. Historians in the West are criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world. In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote:

The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is erased when the person ceases to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future. The story begins with the transmission of tradition, and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past to the future. Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generations.

This definition includes the scope of history is important to the interests of the peoples, as indigenous Australians and New Zealand Maori in the past, and oral reports are saved and passed on to succeeding generations, even before their contact with European civilization.


4. Historiography. (Историография)

Historiography has several related meanings. First, it can denote how story prepared by: history of development methodologies and practices such as the transition from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis. Second, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing, for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "medieval history written in the 1960-ies". Thirdly, it may indicate why history is produced: the philosophy of history. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians. Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives.


5. Historical methods. (Исторические методы)

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.

Herodotus of Halicarnassus 484 BC – CA. 425 BC commonly known as the "father of history". However, his contemporary Thucydides, p. 460 BC – C. 400 BC, credited with the first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his history of the Peloponnesian war. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus, regarded history as the product of choice and human actions, and looked at cause and effect, and not as the result of divine intervention, although Herodotus was not fully committed to this idea. In his historical method, Thucydides emphasizes, chronology, nominally a neutral point of view, and that in the human world is the result of a human being. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.

There were historical traditions and the use of historical method in ancient and Medieval China. Fundamentals of professional historiography in East Asia was established by the court historian of the Han dynasty, known as SIMA Qian 145-90 BCE, the author of the records of the Grand historian Shiji. For the quality of their written work, SIMA Qian is posthumously known as the father of Chinese historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.

Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought in the early medieval period. Through the middle Ages and the Renaissance, history is often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.

In the Preface to his book, Muqaddima 1377, the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it was possible to attempt the evaluation, and, finally, to feel the necessity of experience, in addition to rational principles on the subject of the culture of the past. Ibn Khaldoun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data". As a result, he introduced the scientific method to the study of history, and he often called him his "new science". His historical method also laid the basis for monitoring, as the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history, and therefore he is considered the "father of historiography" or "the father of philosophy of history."

In the West historians developed modern methods of historiography in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and Germany. In 1851, Herbert Spencer summarized these methods:

Of the successive strata of our historical deposits, they diligently gather all the highly colored fragments, pounce upon everything that is curious and sparkling, and laughing like children over their glittering acquisitions, and the rich veins of wisdom that grows amidst this worthless debris, lie completely forgotten. The volume of bulky stuff greedily accumulated, until those masses of rich ore, which had to be dug, and from the Golden truths can be melted, leaving untrained and uninvited

On "rich ore" Spencer was referring to a scientific theory of history. Meanwhile, Henry Thomas buckle expressed the dream of history one day, science:

In regard to nature, events apparently the most irregular and capricious have been explained and have been shown to be in accordance with certain fixed and universal laws. This was done because men of ability and, above all, men of patient, untiring thought of the studied events with the aim of identifying their regularity and if human events were subjected to similar treatment, we have every right to expect similar results

Contrary to buckles sleep, a 19th century historian with greatest influence on methods was Leopold von Ranke in Germany. He limited the history of" what actually happened,” and that led the field away from science. For Ranke, historical data must be carefully collected, examined objectively and with critical rigor. But these procedures are only the background and prologue of science. In the heart of science is the search for order and patterns in the test data and the formulation of generalizations or laws about them.”

As historians like Ranke and many who followed him, chased him, no, history is not a science. Thus, if historians tell us that, given the manner in which he practices his craft, he can not be a science, we must believe his word. If hes not doing science, what hes doing, hes not doing science. Thus, the traditional historian, not a scientist, and history, as commonly practiced, is not science.

In the 20th century historians to a lesser extent focused on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tend to glorify the nation or great men, to more objective and complex analysis of the social and intellectual forces. One of the main trends of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history as a social science, not as art, which has traditionally been. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a variety of scholars which included Fernand Braudel, E. H. Carr, Fritz Fischer, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hans-Ulrich Weiler Bruce trigger, Marc Bloch, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Peter gay, Robert Fogel, Lucien Febvre and Lawrence stone. Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their interdisciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history, political science, Fogel history, Economics, gay history with psychology, begin the story with archeology, and Weiler Bloch, Fischer, stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie in various and different ways combined history, sociology, geography, anthropology and Economics. However, these interdisciplinary approaches have led to the theory of history. So far came from the pen of a professional historian only one theory of history. All other theories of history we have, they were written by professionals from other fields, for example, Marxs theory of history. More recently, digital history has begun to consider ways to use computer technology raises new questions to historical data and to create digital scholarship.

In a sincere rejection of the claims of history as a social science, historians such as Hugh Trevor-Roper, John Lukacs, Donald Creighton, Gertrude of Himmelfarb and Gerhard Ritter argued that the key to a historian of the work was the power of imagination, and therefore argued that history should be understood as art. French historians associated with the school of the annals, introduced quantitative history, using raw data, to trace the life of a typical people, and play a prominent role in creating the cultural history of BF. the history of DES mentalites. Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued the importance of ideas in history. American historians, moved by the era of civil rights, focused on previous forget ethnic, racial and socio-economic groups. Another genre of social history that emerged in the postwar period was the history of everyday life, Alltagsgeschichte. Scholars such as Martin Broszat, Ian Kershaw and Detlev Peukert sought to examine what everyday life for ordinary people in 20th-century Germany, especially during the Nazi period.

Historians-Marxists such as Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer and Christopher hill have sought to adopt the Karl Marxs theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In response to the Marxist interpretation of history, historians such as françois Furet, Richard pipes, D. S. H. Clark, Roland Mousnier, Henry Ashby Turner and Robert conquest have offered anti-Marxist interpretations of history. Feminist historians such as Joan Wallach Scott, Claudia Koonz, Natalie Zemon Davis, Sheila Rowbotham, Gisela Bock, Gerda Lerner, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, and Lynn hunt have argued the importance of studying the experience of women in the past. Recently, postmodernists have questioned the legality and necessity of the study of history on the basis that all stories are based on personal interpretation of sources. In his 1997 book in defence of history, Richard J. Evans defended the value of history. Other protection history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttles book 1994 murder in history.


6. Marxs theory of history. (Теория Маркса в истории)

The Marxist theory of historical materialism theorizes that society is fundamentally determined by the material conditions at any given time – in other words, the relationship that people have with each other in order to satisfy their basic needs such as food, clothing and housing for themselves and their families. In General Marx and Engels claimed to have identified five successive stages of development of these material conditions in Western Europe. Marxist historiography was once Orthodoxy in the Soviet Union, but after the collapse of communism in 1991, Mikhail Krom said that he has been reduced to the margins of science.


7.1. Field of study. Periods. (Периоды)

Historical study often focuses on events that occur at a particular time. Historians give these periods of time names in order to "organize the ideas and generalization of classifiers" to be used by historians. The names given term may vary depending on geographic location, and the dates of the beginning and end of a certain period. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the Dating system. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments about the past. Way built periods and the names given to them can affect how they are viewed and studied.


7.2. Field of study. Prehistoric periodization. (Доисторическая периодизация)

The field of history in General leaves a prehistory archaeologists who have completely different sets of tools and theories. The conventional method of periodization from the distant prehistoric past, in archeology is to rely on changes in material culture and technologies such as stone age, bronze age and Iron age and their subdivisions, as well as on the basis of various styles of material remains. Here the background is divided into several "chapters" so that history can be deployed not only in the relative chronology, but also the narrative chronology. This textual content can be in the form of a functional-economic interpretation. There are periodization, however, that is not the point, based largely on the relative chronology and thus devoid of any specific meaning.

Despite the development in recent decades, the possibility of using radiocarbon Dating and other scientific methods to give exact dates for many sites or artifacts, these established schemes are likely to remain in use. In many cases of neighboring cultures with a letter left some of the history of cultures without it, which can be used. Periodization, however, should not be regarded as the ideal Foundation with one account, explaining that "cultural change is not easy to start and stop combinedly in the periodization of the border" and that different trajectories of change also needs to be studied in their own right before they are intertwined with cultural phenomena.


7.3. Field of study. Geographical locations. (Географических точках)

Specific geographical locations can form the basis of a historical study, for example, continents, countries and cities. Understanding why historical events occurred is important. To do this, historians often turn to geography. According to Jules Michelet in his book Rue de France in 1833, "without a geographical basis, people, person, history, it seems, is walking on air." Weather conditions, water and landscape of a place all affect the lives of people who live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, studying the geography of Egypt is important. Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the river Nile, which every year photoplay, depositing soil on its banks. The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed people in the cities. This meant that everyone was out on the farm, so some people could perform other jobs that contributed to the development of civilization. There is also the case of climate change, which historians as Ellsworth Huntington and Allen Semple, cited as a decisive influence on the course of history and racial temperament.


7.4. Field of study. Regions. (Регионы)

  • The history of Africa begins with the first appearance of modern man on the continent, continuing into its modern present as a collection of different and politically developing States.
  • History of Central America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the lands of the Western hemisphere.
  • The history of the Caribbean begins with the oldest evidence where 7.000 are-year-old remains were found.
  • The history of North America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the earths Northern and Western hemisphere.
  • History of South America is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the lands of the southern and Western hemisphere.
  • The story of America is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean.
  • History Southeast Asia has been characterized as interaction between regional players and foreign powers.
  • The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis believed to exist in the extreme South of the globe.
  • History New Zealand has no less than 700 years, when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed their own māori culture centered on kinship links and land.
  • History of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day.
  • History of India-a study of the past passed down from generation to generation in the sub-Himalayan region.
  • The history of the Middle East begins with the earliest civilizations in the region now known as the middle East that were established around 3000 BC, in Mesopotamia Iraq.
  • The history of East Asia is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation in East Asia.
  • History of Australia starts with the documentation of the Makassar trading with indigenous Australians on the North coast of Australia.
  • History of the Pacific Islands covers the history of the Islands in the Pacific ocean.
  • History of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several different peripheral coastal regions, East Asia, South Asia and the middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppes.
  • History of Eurasia is the collective history of several different peripheral coastal regions: the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe, linked the interior mass of the Eurasian steppes of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.


7.5. Field of study. Military history. (Военная история)

Problems of military battle history, strategy, battles, weapons, and the psychology of the fight. The "new military history" since the 1970s years was associated with soldiers more than generals, more psychology than tactics, and the wider impact of war on society and culture.


7.6. Field of study. Of the history of religion. (Истории религии)

The history of religion was the main theme for both secular and religious historians for centuries, and continues to teach at the Seminary and Academy. Leading magazines about Church history, Catholic historical review and the history of religions. Topics vary widely from political and cultural and artistic aspects of theology and Liturgy. This subject studies religions from all regions and areas of the world where people lived.


7.7. Field of study. Social history. (Социальная история)

Social history, sometimes called the new social history, is a field that includes history of ordinary people and their strategies and institutions to combat life. In its "Golden age" this was one of the most important areas of growth in the 1960s and 1970s among scholars and still is well represented in departments of history. In the two decades from 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history rose from 31% to 41%, while the proportion of political historians fell from 40% to 30%. In the history departments of British universities in 2007, of the 5723 faculty, 1644 29% identified themselves with social history and political history of the near 1425 25%. The "old" social history before the 1960s was a hodgepodge of issues with no Central theme, and it often included political movements, like populism, that the "social" in the sense that outside the elite system. Social history was contrasted with political history, intellectual history and the history of great men. English historian G. M. Trevelyan saw it as the point intermediate between the economic and political history, reflecting that, "without social history, economic history is barren and political history unintelligible." While the field is often perceived negatively as history with the politics left, he also defended "history with people put back."


7.8. Field of study. Subfield. (Подполе)

The main sub-disciplines of social history include:

  • Family history. (История семьи)
  • Rural history. (Сельские истории)
  • The history of labor.
  • Ethnic history. (Этническая история)
  • American urban history. (Американская история городов)
  • History of education. (История образования)
  • Urban history. (Городской истории)
  • Demographic history. (Демографическая история)
  • Womens history. (Истории женщин)

Smaller specialties include:

  • Gender history. (Гендерная история)
  • History of childhood. (Истории детства)

7.9. Field of study. Cultural history. (Культурная история)

Cultural history replaced social history as the dominant form in the 1980s and 1990s years. It typically combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at language, popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. He studies the reports and descriptions of past knowledge, customs, and arts of a group of people. How peoples constructed their memory of the past is the main theme. Cultural history includes the study of art in society is also the study of images and visual products human iconography.


7.10. Field of study. Diplomatic history. (Дипломатическая история)

Diplomatic history focuses on the relationship between States, especially in relation to diplomacy and causes of war. Most recently, he looks to the causes of peace and human rights. It is usually given in terms of the Ministry of foreign Affairs, and long-term strategic values, as the driving force of continuity and change in history. This type of political history is the study of international relations between States or across state boundaries over time. Historian Muriel Chamberlain notes that after the First world war, "diplomatic history replaced constitutional history as the flagship of historical investigation, immediately the most important, most accurate and most sophisticated historical research". She adds that after 1945, the trend reversed, allowing social history to replace it.


7.11. Field of study. Economic history. (Экономическая история)

Although economic history is well known since the late 19th century, in recent years, scientific research is shifting toward Economics departments and away from traditional history departments. Business history is dedicated to the history of individual business organizations, methods of doing business, government regulation, labor relations, and impact on society. It also includes biographies of individual companies, executives, and entrepreneurs. It is related to economic history, business history are often taught in business schools.


7.12. Field of study. Environmental history. (Экологической истории)

Environmental history is a new direction that emerged in the 1980-ies to look at the history of the environment, especially in the long term, and the impact of human activities on it.


7.13. Field of study. World history. (Всемирная история)

World history is the study of major civilizations over the last 3000 years. World history is primarily a field and not a field for research. It gained popularity in the United States, Japan and other countries since the 1980-ies with the realization that students need a broader exposure to the world in the context of globalization.

This has led to highly controversial interpretations by Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee, among others.

World Association for the history, publishes the journal of world history every quarter since 1990. H-world discussion list serves as a network for communication between specialists of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, collections, bibliographies and reviews.


7.14. Field of study. The history of the peoples. (История народов)

The history of peoples-is a type of historical work which attempts to account for historical events from the point of view of ordinary people. The history of the peoples is the history of the world, is the story of mass movements and of the outsiders. Individuals or groups not included in the past in other writing about the history of the main task, which includes the disenfranchised, the oppressed, the poor, nonconformists, and, conversely, forgotten people. The authors, as a rule, on the left and the socialist model in mind, and in the approach to the history of the workshop movement in the UK in the 1960-ies.


7.15. Field of study. Intellectual history. (Интеллектуальная история)

Appeared intellectual history and the history of ideas in the middle of the 20th century, with emphasis on intellectuals and their books on the one hand, and on the other the study of ideas as incorporeal objects with their own careers.


7.16. Field of study. Gender history. (Гендерная история)

Gender history is a sub-field of history and gender studies, which looks at the past from the point of view of gender. This is largely a consequence of Womens history. Despite its relatively short life, gender history and its forerunner Womens history had a very significant impact on the overall study of history. Since 1960-ies, when the initially small field first achieved some recognition, it has gone through various stages, each with their own problems and results. Although some changes to the study of history was quite obvious, such as increased numbers of books on famous women or simply the admission of greater numbers of women in the historical profession, and other factors are more subtle.


7.17. Field of study. Public history. (Публичная история)

"Public history" describes a wide range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working in specialized educational institutions. Public history practice has quite deep roots in the field of historic preservation, archives, oral history, Museum curatorship, and other related fields. The term began to be used in the United States and Canada in the late 1970-ies and the field is becoming more professionalservice since that time. Some of the most common settings for public history are museums, historic houses and historical monuments, parks, battlefields, archives, film and television companies, and all levels of government.


8. Historians. (Историки)

Professional and Amateur historians discover, collect, organize and present information about past events. They discover this information through archaeological data, written sources from the past and other various tools, such as place names. In lists of historians can be grouped depending on the historical period in which they wrote that not necessarily coincides with the period in which they spetsializiruyutsya. Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also often included.


9. The judgment of history. (Суд истории)

Since the 20th century, Western historians have denied the desire to ensure "the court of history." The goals of historical judgements or interpretations are separate to those legal solutions which should be formulated immediately after the events and be final. The question is that the decision history is the collective memory.


10. Pseudohistory. (Фолк-хистори)

Pseudohistory is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical Convention in a manner which undermines their conclusions. It is closely related to deceptive historical revisionism. Works which draw controversial conclusions from new, speculative or disputed historical evidence, particularly in the fields of national, political, military and religious Affairs, are often rejected as pseudohistory.


11.1. The teaching of history. Scholarship vs teaching. (Стипендия против преподавания)

A major intellectual battle in the UK in the early twentieth century about the place of history teaching in universities. In Oxford and Cambridge, the scholarship was downplayed. Professor Charles Harding Firth, oxfords Regius Professor of history in 1904 ridiculed the system as best suited for the production of surface journalists. Oxford Tutors, who had more votes than the professors, fought back in defense of its system saying that he has successfully made Britains outstanding statesmen, administrators, prelates and diplomats, and this mission is as important as the training of scientists. Teachers dominated the discussions until after the Second world war. It made young scholars to teach at outlying schools, such as Manchester University, where Thomas Frederick tout was professionalising the history undergraduate introduction the study of primary sources and require writing a thesis.

In the United States, scholarship was concentrated at the major PhD-producing universities, while a large number of other colleges and universities, focused on students teaching. The trend in the 21st century were the last schools increasingly require scientific productivity of their Junior tenure-track faculty. In addition, universities more and more rely on cheap, incomplete adjuncts to do most of the schooling.


11.2. The teaching of history. Nationalism. (Национализм)

From the origins of national school systems in the 19th century, the teaching of history to promote national sentiment and has a high priority. In the United States after the First world war, a strong movement at the University level to teach courses in Western civilization so as to give students a common heritage of Europe. In the U.S. after 1980 attention increasingly moved in the direction of teaching world history and requiring students to take courses in non-Western cultures, to prepare students for life in a globalized economy.

At the University level, historians argue about whether history belongs more to the sociology or Humanities. A look at the field from both points of view.

The teaching of history in French schools was influenced by contemporary history as a widespread after the 1960-ies, but pedagogiques and Enseignement and other journals for teachers. Was also influential the national Institute of research and documentation pedagogique, INRDP. Joseph Leif, the inspector-General of professional training of teachers, pupils said that children should learn about historians approaches as well as facts and dates. Louis françois, Dean of the history / geography group in the Inspectorate of national education announced that teachers should provide historic documents and promote "active methods" which would give pupils "the immense happiness of discovery." Supporters said it was a reaction to memorization of names and dates, which is typical of the teaching and left the students bored. Traditionalists protested loudly it was a postmodern innovation that threatened to leave the youth ignorant of French patriotism and national identity.


11.3. The teaching of history. Bias in school teaching. (Уклон в школе преподавать)

In some countries, history textbooks funds for the development of nationalism and patriotism, and give students the official story about the national enemies.

In many countries history textbooks, funded by the national government and are written to put the national heritage in the most favorable light. For example, in Japan, mention of the Nanjing massacre has been removed from textbooks and all of the Second world war gave superficial. Other countries complained. It was standard policy in Communist countries, only a rigid Marxist historiography.

In the United States of America, history of the southern States, slavery and Civil war are controversial topics. McGraw-hill education, for example, was criticised for describing the Africans brought to American plantations as "workers" instead of slaves in the textbook.

Academic historians have often fought against the politicization of the textbooks, sometimes with success.

In the 21st-century Germany, the history curriculum is controlled in 16 States, and this is not superpatriotism and "almost pacifistic and deliberately unpatriotic undertone" and reflects "principles formulated by international organizations such as UNESCO or the Council of Europe, thus, focuses on human rights, democracy and peace." The result is that "German textbooks usually downplay national pride and ambitions and aim to develop an understanding of citizenship focused on democracy, progress, human rights, peace, tolerance and Europeanness".

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