ⓘ Humanities in the United States

Humanities in the United States

ⓘ Humanities in the United States

Humanities in the United States refers to the study of humanities disciplines, such as literature, history, language, performing and visual arts or philosophy, in the United States of America.

Many American colleges and universities seek to provide a broad "liberal arts education", in which all college students to study the humanities in addition to their specific area of study. Prominent proponents of liberal arts in the United States have included Mortimer J. Adler and E.D. Hirsch. A liberal arts focus is often coupled with curricular requirements; colleges including Saint Anselm College and Providence College have mandatory two-year core curricula in the humanities for their students.

The 1980 United States Rockefeller Commission on the Humanities described the humanities in its report, The Humanities in American Life:

Through the humanities we reflect on the fundamental question: What does it mean to be human? The humanities offer clues but never a complete answer. They reveal how people have tried to make moral, spiritual, and intellectual sense of a world in which irrationality, despair, loneliness, and death are as conspicuous as birth, friendship, hope, and reason.


1. Conceptual validity

The very concept of the humanities’ as a class or kind, distinct from the ’sciences’, has come under repeated attack in the twentieth century. T.S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions argued that the forces driving scientific progress often have less to do with objective inference from unbiased observation than with much more value-laden sociological and cultural factors. More recently, Richard Rorty has argued that the distinction between the sciences and the humanities is harmful to both pursuits, placing the former on an undeserved pedestal and condemning the latter to irrationality. Rorty’s position requires a wholesale rejection of such traditional philosophical distinctions as those between appearance and reality, subjective and objective, replacing them with what he endorses as a new fuzziness’. This leads to a kind of pragmatism where "the oppositions between the humanities, the arts, and the sciences, might gradually fade away. In this situation, the humanities’ would no longer think of themselves as such."


2. Modernism and postmodernism

In the United States, the late 20th century saw a challenge to the "elitism" of the humanities, which Edward Said has characterized as a "conservative philosophy of gentlemanly refinement, or sensibility." Such postmodernists argued that the humanities should go beyond the study of "dead white males" to include work by women and people of color, and without religious bias. The French philosopher Michel Foucault has been a very influential part of this movement, stating in The Order of Things that "we can study only individuals, not human nature." However some in the humanities believed that such changes could be detrimental; the result is said to be what E. D. Hirsch Jr. refers to as declining cultural literacy.


3. National institutions

President Lyndon Johnson signed the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act in 1965, creating the National Council on the Humanities, and funded the National Endowment for the Humanities NEH in 1969. NEH is an independent grant-making agency of the United States government dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities see Public humanities.

NEH facilitated the creation of State Humanities Councils in the 56 U.S. states and territories. Each council operates independently, defining the "humanities" in relationship to the disciplines, subjects, and values valued in the regions they serve. Councils give grant funds to individuals, scholars, and nonprofit organizations dedicated to the humanities in their region. Councils also offer diverse programs and services that respond to the needs of their communities and according to their own definitions of the humanities.


4. Career prospects

Criticism of the traditional humanities/liberal arts degree program has been leveled by critics who see them as both expensive and relatively "useless" in the modern American job market, where several years of specialized study is required in most job fields. According to a 2018 report by the Humanities Indicators, unemployment rates for humanities majors were slightly higher and their earnings were slightly lower than the averages for college degree recipients with similar degree levels though both were still substantially better than for those without a college degree. Their overall levels of satisfaction with their jobs and their lives, however, were essentially the same as graduates from other fields, with more than 85% of humanities graduates reporting they were satisfied with their jobs. As of 2015, approximately five million people employed in management and professional jobs had bachelor’s degrees in the humanities.

  • affiliates, the 56 humanities councils in the states and territories of the United States The ninth NEH Chair was Jim Leach. President Obama nominated the former
  • Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred
  • State humanities councils are private, non - profit partners of the National Endowment for the Humanities NEH There are 56 councils located in every
  • humanities councils in the United States and is affiliated with the National Endowment for the Humanities The first iteration of Indiana Humanities was
  • The Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities located in Seattle, Washington, is one of the largest and most comprehensive humanities centers in
  • disciplines of the humanities. It includes the systematic use of digital resources in the humanities as well as the analysis of their application. DH can
  • The Arts Humanities Citation Index A HCI also known as Arts Humanities Search, is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than
  • The Packard Humanities Institute PHI is a non - profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in
  • Center for Humanities 518 U.S. 415 1996 was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in which the Court further refined the Erie doctrine
  • ACH is based in the United States and has an international membership. ACH is a founding member of the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations
  • academic research in the humanities and began operations in 1978. Located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States near the campuses of Duke