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★ Car



                                               

BMW

Bayerische Motor Werke AG, translated into English as "Bavarian motor works" commonly known as BMW) is a German multinational company that produces cars and motorcycles. The company was founded in 1916 as a manufacturer of aircraft engines, which he produced from 1917 to 1918 and again between 1933 and 1945. The vehicles are sold under the brands BMW, Mini and Rolls-Royce, and motorcycles sold under the brand name BMW Motorrad. In 2015, BMW was the worlds twelfth-largest car manufacturer, with 2.279.503 produced cars. BMW is headquartered in Munich and has been producing cars in Germany, B ...

                                               

Audi

Audi AG) is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, manufactures, distributes and luxury cars. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen group and has its roots in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide. The origins of the company are complex, in the early 20th century and the start companies Horch and established Audiwerke engineer August Horch and two other manufacturers DKW and Wanderer, leading to the creation of Auto Union in 1932. The modern era of Audi, in fact, began in the 1960-ies, when the Union was bou ...

                                               

Kia Motors

Corporation Kia motors, widely known as Kia motors. is a South Korean multinational automotive manufacturer with headquarters in Seoul. This is South Koreas second largest automobile manufacturer after Hyundai Motor company, with sales of over 3.3 million vehicles in 2015. As of December 2015, the Kia motor Corporation is a minority owner of the company Hyundai, which owns 33.88% of the shares in the amount of slightly over a billion dollars. KIA, in turn, is a minority owner of more than twenty subsidiaries Hyundai, ranging from 4.9% to 45.37%, reaching more than us.3 billion.

                                               

Chevrolet

Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet division of General Motors is an American automobile division American manufacturer General motors. Louis Chevrolet and ousted GM founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3, 1911 as the Chevrolet motor car company. Durant used the Chevrolet car company to acquire a controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on may 2, 1918, and pushed back to the post of the GM. After Durants second displacement in 1919, Alfred Sloan, with his Maxim "a car for every purse and purpose," would pic ...

                                               

Nissan

Nissan Motor Co., LTD. usually shortened to Nissan is a Japanese multinational automaker with its headquarters in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. The company sells cars under the Nissan, infiniti and Datsun brands with performance tuning products with labeling NISMO. The company conducts its name to Nissan zaibatsu, now called Nissan. Since 1999, Nissan is in the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance Mitsubishi to join in 2016, the partnership between Nissan of Japan, Mitsubishi motors from Japan and Renault from France. As of 2013, Renault owns a 43.4% voting stake in Nissan, while Nissan owns 15% non-v ...

                                               

Lexus

Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota. The Lexus brand is sold in more than 70 countries and territories worldwide and became the biggest-selling Japanese make of premium cars. He is among the 10 largest Japanese global brands in market value. With the Lexus is headquartered in Nagoya, Japan. Operating centers located in Brussels, Belgium and the USA in PLANO, Texas. Lexus originated from a corporate project to develop a new premium sedan, codenamed F1, which began in 1983 and ended with the launch of the Lexus LS in 1989. Subsequently, the division added sedan, ...

Car
                                     

★ Car

A car is a wheeled vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of the cars they operate primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, four tires, and basically transporting people and not goods.

Cars entered for global use throughout the 20th century, and the developed countries depend on them. In 1886 is considered the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz patent-Motorwagen. Machines became widely available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars available to the masses was the 1908 model T an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.

The cars controls for driving, Parking, comfort for passengers, and lots of lights. For decades, additional features and controls were added to vehicles, making them more complex but also more reliable and easy to operate. They include rear reversing camera, air conditioning, navigation system and in-car entertainment. Most of the cars used in the 2010-ies are driven by an internal combustion engine, fueled by burning fossil fuels. Electric cars that were invented in the early history of the car, became available in the 2000s and is forecast to cost less to buy than gasoline cars by 2025.

There are costs and benefits of the use of the car. The costs to the individual include the purchase of a car, the payment of interest, if the car is financed, repairs and maintenance, fuel, depreciation, travel time, Parking, taxes, and insurance. The costs include road maintenance, land use, traffic congestion, air pollution, population health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of his life. Traffic accidents are the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the world.

Personal benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience. Social benefits include economic benefits such as creating jobs and wealth from the automotive industry, providing transportation, public welfare from the facilities and opportunities for travel, and income taxes. The ability of people to move from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of society. There are about 1 billion cars worldwide. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly industrialized countries.

                                     

1. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word "car" believed originate from Latin word carrus or Carrum "wheeled vehicle," or the English word "carré", meaning "two wheels of a cart", from old North French. In turn, descended from the Gaulish word karros Gallic chariots. It originally referred to any wheeled cart, such as cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested in 1895, and is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant that is also evidence in 1895, but is now considered archaic. It literally means "self propelled machine". The term "horseless crew" is used by some to refer to the first cars at the time they were constructed, and stamped in 1895.

The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the ancient Greek word αὐτός autos, meaning "self" and the Latin word Mobilis, meaning "movable". He had entered the English language from French, and was first adopted by the automobile club of great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favor in the UK, and was replaced by "car". "Car" is mainly North America, particularly in an official or commercial term. Short form, "auto" was previously a common way to refer to machines in English, but is now considered old-fashioned. The word is still very common as an adjective in American English, usually in compound formations as "automotive" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages historically related to English, the abbreviated form of "auto" in Dutch / "auto" the German language and a formal full version "automobiel" Dutch "CLUB" of Germany are still used - the short form of the ordinary word "car".

                                     

2. History. (История)

The first working steam car was developed and perhaps the reason - Ferdinand verbiest, Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale model toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or passenger. It is not known with certainty if the model Verbiests was successfully built and run.

Nicolas-Joseph cugnot is widely credited with building the first full-scale, - propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in 1769; he created a steam tricycle. He also built two steam tractors for the French army, one of which is preserved in the French national Conservatory of arts and crafts. However, his invention was suffering from problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his puffing Devil road Locomotive, believed by many to be the first manifestation of a steam car. He was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long time and there was little practical use.

The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car, but often treated separately from the development of true cars. There were various steam vehicles used during the first half of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses, phaetons, and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the locomotive acts of 1865.

In 1807, Nicephore Niepce and his brother Claude created what was probably the worlds first internal combustion engine which they called Pyreolophore, but they decided to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. By the way, in 1807 the Swiss inventor françois Isaac de Rivaz created his own internal combustion engine de Rivaz and used it to develop the worlds first vehicle powered by such an engine. In the Pyreolophore Niepces was filled with a mixture of powder of dried spores of club mosses plants club mosses, finely crushed coal dust and resin which were blended with oil, whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Neither design was very successful, was the case with others such as Samuel brown, Samuel Maury, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, each produced vehicles usually adapted carriages or carts powered by internal combustion engines.

In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouv demonstrated the first working three-wheeled automobile powered by electricity at the International Congress of electricians in Paris. Although several other German engineers work on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is considered the inventor of the modern car.

In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which was developed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made use internal combustion engine possible for powering a vehicle. His first Motorwagen was built in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. He received a patent for its invention as of his application on 29 January 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3 1886 and about 25 Benz sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first ATV was introduced with the cheaper model. They were also equipped with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz car to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early cars were originally built and sold in France via Roger than Benz sold in Germany. In August 1888 Bertha Benz, wife of Karl Benz, undertook the first trip by car to prove the road-worthiness of her husbands invention.

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called boxermotor. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and, because of its size, Benz & CIE V., became a joint stock company. The first passenger car in Central Europe and one of the first factory cars in the world, was produced by Czech company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau later renamed Tatra in 1897 Prasident of the machine.

Daimler and Maybach founded the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, DMG in Cannstatt in 1890, and sold their first car in 1892 under the name Daimler. It was horse stagecoach built by another manufacturer, which they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles were built by Daimler and Maybach, Daimler in the construction or in the hotel Hermann, where they settled after disputes with their backers. Benz, Maybach and the Daimler team seem to not know each other in the beginning. They never worked together time merger two companies Daimler and Maybach were no DMG. Daimler died in 1900 and in the same year, Maybach develops the engine, which was named Daimler-Mercedes, which was placed in a specially ordered model built on technical Emil Jellinek. It was the production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, has released a new model DMG car and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 HP. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.

Karl Benz proposed cooperation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when the economic conditions deteriorate in Germany after the First world war, but the Directors of DMG refused to look at him. Resumed after several years of negotiations between the two companies, when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an agreement of mutual interest valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their car models jointly, although keeping their respective brands. On 28 June 1926, Benz & Cie. And DMG finally merged as "Daimler-Benz" company, baptizing all of its cars "Mercedes-Benz" as a brand in honour of the most important model DMG automobiles Maybach design, which later became known as the 1902 Mercedes-35 HP, Together with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the Board of Directors of "Daimler-Benz" until his death in 1929, and at times his two sons also participated in the management of the company.

In 1890, émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the Foundation of the automobile industry in France. In 1891, Auguste Doriot and his Peugeot colleague Louis Rigoulot completed the longest trip on vehicles with gasoline engines when their self-designed and built by the Daimler-powered Peugeot Type 3 complete 2.100 1.300 km away from the city of valentigney to Paris and Brest and back. They were attached to the first Paris–Brest–Paris Bicycle race, but finished 6 days after the winning cyclist, Charles Terront.

The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was manufactured in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, new York. Selden applied for a patent for an car in 1879, but the patent expired because the vehicle was never built. After a delay of sixteen years and a wide range of attachments to his application, on 5 November 1895, Selden received a patent of the USA U.S. patent 549.160 for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of automobiles in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.

In 1893, the first running, gasoline American car was built and tested by the duryea brothers from Springfield, Massachusetts. The first public run duryea motor wagon took place 21 September 1893 Taylor street metro center Springfield. The Studebaker automobile company, subsidiary of a long-established wagon and coach manufacturer, started to build cars in 1897 and commenced sales of electric vehicles in 1902 and gasoline engines in 1904.

In the UK there have been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success, with Thomas Rickett even trying a production run in 1860. Santler from Malvern recognized veteran car club great Britain, as did the first gasoline cars in the country in 1894 followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895, but it was a one-off. The first production vehicles in great Britain came from the Daimler company, a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896, after purchasing the rights to use the names of the engines. Lawsons company made its first car in 1897, and they bore the name Daimler AG.

In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel got a patent for a "new rational combustion engine". In 1897 he built first diesel engine. Steam, electric and gasoline vehicles competed decades gasoline internal combustion engines to achieve domination in the 1910-ies. Although various pistonless design of the rotary engine tried to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazdas version of the Wankel engine has more than very limited success.

Overall, it is estimated that over 100.000 patents created the modern car and motorcycle.

                                     

3. Mass production. (Массовое производство)

Large-scale production, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was started in 1901 by ransom olds at his Oldsmobile factory in Lansing, Michigan, and on the basis of the stationary conveyor method for Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth block mills, England in 1802. The Assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts were pioneers in the United States Thomas Blanchard in 1821, at the Springfield Arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1913, the worlds first moving Assembly line for cars in highland Park plant Ford.

As a result, fords cars came off line fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing productivity eightfold, while using less labor with a 12.5-man-hours 1 hour 33 minutes. It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available until 1913, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. It is the source of fords apocryphal remark, "any color until it is black." In 1914, an Assembly line could buy a model T with four months.

Ford complex safety procedures - especially assigning each worker specific location instead of allowing them to wander about - dramatically reduced the level of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries. Increase efficiency with conveyor coincided with the economic recovery in the United States. Pipeline workers are forced to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries use less productive methods.

In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Britain in 1911, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921 Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt the production method. Soon, companies had to have Assembly lines, or risk going broke by 1930, 250 companies which did not disappear.

The development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to hundreds of small manufacturers competing to attract the attention of the worlds. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric starter as Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac motor company in 1910-1911, independent suspension and four-wheel brakes.

Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans often have heavily influenced car design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, called General motors to make a program so that buyers could "move up" as their condition improved.

Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume leads to lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930-ies, lasells also, sold by Cadillac, used cheaper mechanical parts cars Oldsmobile, 1950-s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and Windows with Pontiac, in the 1990-ies, corporate powertrains and shared platforms was common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson, Cole, Dorris, Haynes, or Premier, could not: some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the great depression, by 1940, only 17 of them remained.

In Europe the same way. Morris has established its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow fords practice of vertical integration, buying Hotchkiss engines, gearboxes "Wrigley", and Osberton radiators, for example, as well as competitors, for example, have a great time: in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey with Xtra, went under water. Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919 between them other cheap cars in reply such as Renaults 10CV and Peugeots 5CV, they produced cars 550.000 in 1925, and mors, Hurtu, and others could not compete. In Germany the first production car, the Opel Laubfrosch tree frog 4P, came on the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the TOP cars in Germany, with 37.5% of the market.

In Japan, car production was very limited until the Second world war. Only a small number of companies producing cars in limited numbers, and these were small three-Wheeler for commercial use, such as Daihatsu, or was the result of partnerships with European companies, as the home of Isuzu luxury a-9 in 1922. Mitsubishi are also working with Fiat and built Mitsubishi model-based Fiat. Toyota, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, and Honda began production of automotive products before the war, the transition to the production of cars in 1950-ies. The decision Kiichiro Toyodas to take Toyoda loom works in the automotive industry would be to create what will eventually be the company Toyota, the largest car manufacturer in the world. Subaru, meanwhile, was formed from a conglomerate of six companies that merged to Fuji heavy industries, the result was divided in accordance with the laws of keiretsu.



                                     

4. Fuel and technology. (Топлива и технологии)

According to the European environment Agency, the transport sector is one of the main sources of air pollution, noise pollution and climate change.

Most of the cars used in the 2010-ies run on gasoline, burned in the internal combustion engine ice. International organization of automobile manufacturers said that in countries that mandate low sulfur gasoline cars built before the end of 2010-x standards such as Euro 6 provides an extremely low level of air pollution. In some cities, the ban on the old gasoline cars and some countries plan to ban the sale in the future. However, some environmental groups say that its phasing out fossil fuel vehicles should be extended in order to limit climate change. The production of gasoline fueled cars reached its peak in 2017.

Other fossil hydrocarbon fuels are also Burnt in combustion and detonation in internal combustion engines of cars, which include diesel, gas and CNG. The removal of subsidies for fossil fuels, concerns about dependence on fossil fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions accelerate work on alternative power systems for automobiles. This includes hybrid vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. 2.1 million light electric vehicles of all kinds, but mostly of the cars sold in 2018, for six months in China: at 64% on the previous year, giving total on-road 5.4 million. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible fuel and natural gas are gaining popularity in some countries. Cars for racing or speed records are sometimes used jet or rocket engines, but it is impractical for General use.

Oil consumption has increased rapidly in the 20th and 21st centuries, because there are more cars, 1985-2003 oil glut even contributed to the sales of economy-class in OECD countries. The BRIC countries increase their consumption.

                                     

5. User interface. (Пользовательский интерфейс)

The cars are equipped with controls used for driving, comfort and safety of passengers, usually operated by a combination of hands and feet, and occasionally by voice on the car of the 21st century. These controls include steering wheel, control pedal brakes and control the vehicle speed, a shift lever or grip shift gears and also the number of buttons and dials to enable lighting, ventilation and other functions. Modern cars controls are presented in a standardized form, such as the location for accelerator and brake, but this is not always the case. Regulation evolves in response to new technologies, e.g. electric cars and integration of mobile communication.

Some of the original controls are no longer required. For example all cars once were controls for the choke valve, clutch, ignition timing, and a crank instead of an electric starter. However, new elements have been added to vehicles, making them more complex. They include air conditioning, navigation system and entertainment in the car. Another trend is the replacement of physical buttons and switches for secondary controls with touchscreen controls such as BMW iDrive and fords MyFord touch. Another change is that it is too early pedal cars were physically connected with the brake mechanism and gas, in 2010-ies, cars are increasingly replacing these physical relationships with electronic control.

                                     

6. Lighting. (Освещение)

Cars are usually equipped with multiple types of light. They include lights used to illuminate the path ahead and make the vehicle visible to other users, so that the car can be used at night, in some countries, daytime running lights, red brake lights to indicate when the brakes are applied; amber turn signal lights to indicate turning intention of the driver, white rear lights to illuminate the area behind the vehicle and indicate that the driver will or reverse on some vehicles, for example additional lights, side marker lights for improved visibility. Interior light on ceiling of car are usually fitted for the driver and passengers. Some cars also have the trunk light and, more rarely, in the engine compartment light.

                                     

7. Weight. (Вес)

In the late 20th and early 21st century cars increased in weight due to the battery, modern steel cells security, anti-lock brake system, airbags, and "more powerful - if more-efficient system" and, as of 2019, usually weigh from 1 to 3 tons. A heavier vehicle is safer for the driver, in terms of the accident, but more dangerous for other vehicles and road users. The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance, with more weight leads to higher fuel consumption and decreased performance. In the SmartFortwo, small city car, weighs 750-795 kg 1.655–1.755 kg. of Heavy vehicles include full-size cars, SUV, and extended length SUVs as a commuter.

According to research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge, global energy consumption can be greatly reduced by using lighter cars average weight 500 kilograms 1.100 pounds was said to be achievable. In some competitions such as Shell eco marathon, average car weights of 45 kg 99 lbs have also been achieved. These cars are only single-seaters still falling within definition car although 4 seater cars are more common, but they nevertheless demonstrate the amount by which car weights can be reduced, and as a consequence, low fuel level, i.e., until the fuel use of 2560 km / l.



                                     

8. Seating and body style. (Гостиная и тип кузова)

Most cars are designed to carry multiple passengers, often with four or five seats. A car with five seats, usually seat two passengers in the front and Three on back. Full-size cars and large sport utility vehicles can often carry six, seven or more occupants depending on the arrangement of the seats. On the other hand, sports cars are often designed with only two seats. Different needs for passengers and their Luggage or cargo space has resulted in a large variety of body styles to satisfy individual needs of consumers, which include, inter alia, sedan, hatchback, station wagon / estate, and minivan.

                                     

9. Security. (Безопасности)

Traffic accidents are the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the world. Mary ward became one of the first documented cases of the loss of your car in 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland and Henry bliss from the United States first pedestrian car casualties in 1899 in new York. There are now standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests, and insurance industry supported tests by the Insurance Institute for highway safety IIHS.

                                     

10. Costs and benefits. (Затраты и выгоды)

The cost of car use, which may include the costs of: purchase of vehicles, repair and maintenance of cars, fuel, depreciation, travel time, Parking, taxes, insurance, weighed against the cost of alternatives, and the benefits – perceived and real – by the use of the vehicle. Benefits can include upon request, transportation, mobility, independence and convenience. In the 1920s, the car had another advantage: "ouples finally, the way head out on dates without an escort, plus they had the personal space to snuggle up close at the end of the night."

Likewise, the cost to society for the use of the vehicle may include, road maintenance, land use, air pollution, traffic congestion, public health, and the disposal of vehicles at the end of his life, and can be balanced against the benefits to society that car use generates. Social benefits may include: economy benefits, such as creating jobs and wealth, production and maintenance of vehicles, provision of transport, the welfare of society, received from organizations and opportunities for travel and income tax opportunities. The ability of people to move from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of society.



                                     

11. The impact on the environment. (Воздействие на окружающую среду)

Cars are a major source of air pollution in the cities, with all types of machines producing dust from brake, tyre and road wear. In 2018, the average diesel car has a worse effect on air quality than the average petrol car but both petrol and diesel vehicles pollute more than electric cars.Although there are several ways to fuel cars, most rely on gasoline or diesel, and they consume almost a quarter of world oil production by 2019. In 2018, passenger road vehicles emitted 3.6 gigatons of carbon dioxide. As of 2019, due to the greenhouse gases emitted in the manufacture of batteries, electric cars need to be driven tens of thousands of kilometers before their life cycle carbon dioxide emissions are less than fossil fuel cars but it is expected to improve in the future due to more durable batteries are made in large enterprises, and low-carbon electricity. Many governments are using fiscal policies such as road tax to discourage the purchase and use of more environmentally friendly vehicles, and in many cities doing the same with the low emission zones. Fuel taxes can serve as incentives to produce more efficient, hence less polluting, car design, for example, hybrid vehicles and development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes or cultural change can provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles, or not to go.

On average, todays automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable using recycled steel helps reduce energy consumption and environmental pollution. According to the International energy Agency fuel efficiency has improved in 2017, 0.7%, but annual improvement of 3.7% required to meet Global fuel economy targets in 2030. The increase in sales of SUVs, its bad for fuel economy. Many cities in Europe, have banned the old fossil fuel for cars and all types of fossil fuel vehicles will be banned in Amsterdam of 2030. Many Chinese cities limit the licensing of fossil fuel for vehicles, and many countries are planning to stop selling them in the period between 2025 and 2050.

Car production requires considerable resources, and many manufacturers now report on the environmental performance of their factories, including energy use, waste and water. The production of each kilowatt-hour battery emits the same amount of carbon as burning through one full tank of gas. The rising popularity of the car allowed cities to sprawl, therefore encouraging more travel by car as a result of physical inactivity and obesity, which in turn can lead to increased risk of various diseases.

Animals and plants are often negatively affects the machines through habitat destruction and pollution. During the life of the average car the "loss of potential habitat" may be more than 50 000 m2 540.000 square feet, based on primary production correlations. Animals are also killed each year on roads by cars, referred to as wild. More recent changes of traffic, including a significant impact on the natural environment in their projects such as green bridges designed to allow wildlife crossings, and creating wildlife corridors.

The growing popularity of vehicles and commuting has led to traffic congestion. Moscow, Istanbul, Bogota, Mexico city and Sao Paulo were the worlds most congested cities in 2018, according to the map, and analytical data of the company.

                                     

12. Emerging automotive technologies. (Развивающихся автомобильных технологий)

Despite the intensive development of conventional batteries of electric vehicles continues, in 2020-ies, different vehicle engine technologies that are under development include wheel hub motors, wireless charging, hydrogen cars and hydrogen / electric hybrids. Research into alternative forms of power involves the use of ammonia instead of hydrogen in fuel cells.

New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum, fiberglass, carbon fiber, biocomposites and carbon nanotubes. Telematics technology allows more and more people to share cars, on a pay-as-You-go basis, through car share and carpool schemes. Communication is also evolving due to connected car systems.

                                     

12.1. Emerging automotive technologies. Autonomous vehicle. (Автономного транспортного средства)

Fully Autonomous vehicles, also known as unmanned vehicles, already exist in prototype, such as Googles driverless car, but have a long way to go before they are in General use.

                                     

12.2. Emerging automotive technologies. Open-source development. (Разработки открытого исходного кода)

There have been several projects to develop car principles open design, a design approach in which plans of machines and systems sharing, often without monetary compensation. The projects include Oscar, Riversimple through 40fires.org and C,mm,N. None of the projects has made significant progress in terms of developing the car as a whole both from hardware and software perspective and no mass production ready open source based design have been introduced in late 2009. Some car hacking through Board diagnostics OBD has been done so far.

                                     

12.3. Emerging automotive technologies. Exchange cars. (Обмен автомобилей)

Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular in the US and Europe. For example, in the United States, some of car-sharing services have experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 2007. Services like car sharing offering a residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested areas.

                                     

13. Industry. (Промышленность)

The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets and sells the worlds motor vehicles, more than three quarters of which are cars. In 2018, there were 70 million vehicles produced worldwide, which is 2 million compared to the previous year.

The automotive industry in China produces the most 24 million in 2018, then in Japan, 8 million, Germany 5 million and India $ 4 million. The largest market is China, followed by USA.

In total there are about a billion cars on the road, they burn over a trillion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel per year, consuming about 50 ej nearly 300 terawatt-hours of energy. The number of cars is growing rapidly in China and India. In the opinion of some, urban transport systems based on car have proved unsustainable, excessive consumption of energy, affecting the health of populations, and reducing the level of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative consequences to a much greater extent on those social groups that are less likely to own and drive cars. Sustainable traffic aimed at solving these problems. In the automotive industry also faces growing competition from public transport, and some people will review their personal car use.

                                     

14. Alternatives. (Альтернативы)

Established Alternatives for some aspects of car use include public transport such as buses, trolleybuses, trains, metro, trams, light rail, Cycling and walking. Systems bike sharing was created in China and many European cities, including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Similar programs have been developed in major U.S. cities. Additional individual modes of transport such as personal rapid transit could serve alternative automobiles if they are accepted in society.

                                     

15. Other values. (Другие значения)

The term car was previously used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a vehicle and the Luggage that functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems.

                                     
  • Čar Albanian: Çarr is a village in the municipality of Bujanovac, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the town has a population of 296 people. Of
  • Linux, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X Type Interactive geometry software License GNU General Public License Website car rene - grothmann.de doc en index.html
  • have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation, description and categorization of cars The International
  • A police car also called a police cruiser, police interceptor, patrol car cop car prowler, squad car radio car or radio motor patrol RMP is a
  • Compact car is a vehicle size class - predominantly used in North America - that sits between subcompact cars and mid - size cars The present - day definition
  • A sports car is designed to emphasise handling, performance or thrill of driving. Sports cars originated in Europe in the early 1900s and are currently
  • In motorsport, a safety car or pace car is a car which limits the speed of competing cars on a racetrack in the case of a caution period such as an obstruction
  • A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle - borne improvised explosive device VBIED is an improvised explosive device designed to
  • Muscle car is an American term for high - performance cars usually but not limited to rear - wheel drive and fitted with a large and powerful V8 engine.
  • A car rental, hire car or car hire agency is a company that rents automobiles for short periods of time, generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks
                                     
  • Car and Driver CD or C D is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. Its total circulation is 1.23 million. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, who
  • A dining car American English or a restaurant car British English also a diner, is a railroad passenger car that serves meals in the manner of a
  • car - also known as intermediate - is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars that are larger than compact cars
  • Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with New Zealand, Australia, Mexico
  • flying car is a type of personal air vehicle or roadable aircraft that provides door - to - door transportation by both ground and air. The term flying car is
  • Touring car racing is a motorsport road racing competition with heavily modified road - going cars It is popular in Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil
  • A steam car is a car automobile propelled by a steam engine. A steam engine is an external combustion engine ECE in which the fuel is combusted outside
  • Champ Car was the trade name for Open Wheel Racing Series Inc., a sanctioning body for American open - wheel car racing that operated from 2004 to 2008.
  • A car wash also written as carwash or auto wash is a facility used to clean the exterior and, in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. Car washes
  • Touring Car Cup also known as the World Touring Car Racing or the FIA WTCR presented by Oscaro for sponsorship reasons is an international touring car championship
  • A tank car International Union of Railways UIC tank wagon is a type of railroad car UIC: railway car or rolling stock designed to transport liquid
                                     
  • A car dealership or vehicle local distribution is a business that sells new or used cars at the retail level, based on a dealership contract with an automaker
  • A solar car is a solar vehicle used for land transport. Solar cars usually run on only power from the sun, although some models will supplement that power
  • Subcompact car is an American classification for small cars which is broadly equivalent to the B - segment Europe or supermini Great Britain classifications
  • A used car a pre - owned vehicle, or a secondhand car is a vehicle that has previously had one or more retail owners. Used cars are sold through a variety
  • Sprint cars are high - powered race cars designed primarily for the purpose of running on short oval or circular dirt or paved tracks. Sprint car racing
  • Car is a British automotive enthusiast magazine published monthly by Bauer Consumer Media. International editions are published by Bauer Automotive in
  • Modern all - electric cars An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries
  • Executive car is a British term for a large car which is equivalent to the European E - segment and American full - size classifications. Executive cars are larger
  • A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers. Car Cars CAR or CARs may also refer to: Central African Republic Cordillera Administrative

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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