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ⓘ Biculturalism




                                     

ⓘ Biculturalism

Biculturalism in sociology describes the co-existence, to varying degrees, of two originally distinct cultures.

Official policy recognizing, fostering, or encouraging biculturalism typically emerges in countries that have emerged from a history of national or ethnic conflict in which neither side has gained complete victory. This condition usually arises from colonial settlement. Resulting conflicts may take place either between the colonisers and indigenous peoples as in Fiji and/or between rival groups of colonisers. A deliberate policy of biculturalism influences the structures and decisions of governments to ensure that they allocate political and economic power and influence equitably between people and/or groups identified with each side of the cultural divide.

Examples include the conflicts between Anglophone and Francophone Canadians, between Anglophone White South Africans and Boers, and between Tangata whenua i.e. Māori and Tangata tiriti New Zealanders - i.e. settlers and their descendants whose right to be in New Zealand derives from the Tiriti Treaty of Waitangi. The latter group is sometimes referred to generally as "non-Māori"; their ancestors trace to the Pacific known as Pasifika; Asia ; North and South America; Europe often called Pākehā, and Africa. The term biculturalism was originally adopted in Canada, most notably by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism 1963–1969, which recommended that Canada become officially bilingual.

Because the term biculturalism suggests, more or less explicitly, that only two cultures merit formal recognition, advocates of multiculturalism for which biculturalism formed a precedent may regard bicultural outlooks as inadequately progressive by comparison. This was the case in Canada where Ukrainian Canadians activists such as Jaroslav Rudnyckyj, Paul Yuzyk and other "third force" successfully pressured the Canadian government to adopt multiculturalism as official policy in 1971.

In the context of relations between the cultures of deafness and non-deafness, people find the word "biculturalism" less controversial because the distinction between spoken language and sign language commonly seems like a genuine binary distinction - transcending the distinctions between various spoken languages.

In the context of the United States of America, bicultural distinctions have traditionally existed between the US and Mexico, and between the White and the African-American population of the US.

Countries which formally recognize biculturalism include:

  • Paraguay, with a population 90% of which speaks Guarani and 99% of which speaks Spanish
  • Vanuatu, formerly a condominium with both French and British politico-administrative traditions
  • Belgium, divided basically between speakers of French and of Dutch
  • Switzerland, overwhelmingly German and French in language though with recognition of Italian and Romansch
  • the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, retrospectively termed "The Commonwealth of Both Peoples"
  • New Zealand, where the Treaty of Waitangi forms the basis of a relationship between the Crown and Māori iwi tribes through which te reo Māori is recognised as an official language, and Māori have protected representation in Parliament through the Māori electorates

Biculturalism can also refer to individuals see bicultural identity.

                                     
  • Bicultural identity is the condition of being oneself regarding the combination of two cultures. The term can also be defined as biculturalism which is
  • The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism French: Commission royale d enquête sur le bilinguisme et le biculturalisme, also known as the
  • Bilingual Bicultural or BiBi deaf education programs use sign language as the native, or first, language of Deaf children. In the United States, for example
  • Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism recommended successfully that Canada become officially bilingual and bicultural later modified to multicultural
  • Pultar, Gonul 2005 On the road to Baghdad, or, Traveling biculturalism theorizing a bicultural approach to contemporary world fiction. New Academia Publishing
  • politician, playwright co - chair of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in Quebec, Canada Louis - Philippe Laurendeau 1861 1916 Canadian composer
  • Lester Pearson government for consecrating Biculturalism in the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism which Yuzyk said ignored the reality that
  • Education at the University of Auckland and is noted for her positions on biculturalism and Māori language immersion education in New Zealand. Rata gained both
  • deaf and hearing. Alberta School for the Deaf is modeled on a bilingual - bicultural approach. The total enrollment including the elementary school is 77 as
  • English Canada are separate nations Austro - Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Biculturalism Binational solution Dualism disambiguation Hyphen War Multinational
  • language, in monolinguals and bilinguals. He also has interests in biculturalism applied linguistics, aphasia, sign language, and natural language processing
  • served as the only woman on the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism Commission. Laing was born in Tunbridge Wells, Kent and grew up in Winnipeg