Back

ⓘ Artificiality




Artificiality
                                     

ⓘ Artificiality

Artificiality is the state of being the product of intentional human manufacture, rather than occurring naturally through processes not involving or requiring human activity.

                                     

1. Connotations

Artificiality often carries with it the implication of being false, counterfeit, or deceptive. The philosopher Aristotle wrote in his Rhetoric:

Naturalness is persuasive, artificiality is the contrary; for our hearers are prejudiced and think we have some design against them, as if we were mixing their wines for them. It is like the difference between the quality of Theodorus voice and the voices of all other actors: his really seems to be that of the character who is speaking, theirs do not.

However, artificiality does not necessarily have a negative connotation, as it may also reflect the ability of humans to replicate forms or functions arising in nature, as with an artificial heart or artificial intelligence. Political scientist and artificial intelligence expert Herbert A. Simon observes that "some artificial things are imitations of things in nature, and the imitation may use either the same basic materials as those in the natural object or quite different materials. Simon distinguishes between the artificial and the synthetic, the former being an imitation of something found in nature for example, an artificial sweetener which generates sweetness using a formula not found in nature, and the latter being a replication of something found in nature for example, a sugar created in a laboratory that is chemically indistinguishable from a naturally occurring sugar. Some philosophers have gone further and asserted that, in a deterministic world, "everything is natural and nothing is artificial", because everything in the world including everything made by humans is a product of the physical laws of the world.

                                     

2. Distinguishing natural objects from artificial objects

It is generally possible for humans, and in some instances, for computers, to distinguish natural from artificial environments. The artificial environment tends to have more physical regularity both spatially and over time, with natural environments tending to have both irregular structures and structures that change over time. However, on close observation it is possible to discern some mathematical structures and patterns in natural environments, which can then be replicated to create an artificial environment with a more natural appearance.

For example, by identifying and imitating natural means of pattern formation, some types of automata have been used to generate organic-looking textures for more realistic shading of 3D objects.

                                     
  • An artificial uterus or artificial womb is a device that would allow for extracorporeal pregnancy by growing a fetus outside the body of an organism
  • An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently
  • An Artificial organ is a man made Medical organ device or tissue that is implanted or integrated into a human - interfacing with living tissue - to replace
  • In computer science, artificial intelligence AI sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the
  • Artificial insemination AI is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female s cervix or uterine cavity for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy
  • outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence AI intelligence exhibited by machines or
  • Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today s society. More specifically, it is Weak AI, the
  • Advancement of Artificial Intelligence AAAI is an international scientific society devoted to promote research in, and responsible use of, artificial intelligence
  • Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are
  • An artificial island or man - made island is an island that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means. Artificial islands may vary
  • List of space telescopes For the general concept of artificial see Artificiality For artificial objects not in space, see Category: Inventions or List