Back

ⓘ Pivot language




Pivot language
                                     

ⓘ Pivot language

A pivot language, sometimes also called a bridge language, is an artificial or natural language used as an intermediary language for translation between many different languages – to translate between any pair of languages A and B, one translates A to the pivot language P, then from P to B. Using a pivot language avoids the combinatorial explosion of having translators across every combination of the supported languages, as the number of combinations of language is linear, rather than quadratic = n 2 − n 2) {\displaystyle \left} – one need only know the language A and the pivot language P, rather than needing a different translator for every possible combination of A and B.

The disadvantage of a pivot language is that each step of retranslation introduces possible mistakes and ambiguities – using a pivot language involves two steps, rather than one. For example, when Hernan Cortes communicated with Mesoamerican Indians, he would speak Spanish to Geronimo de Aguilar, who would speak Mayan to Malintzin, who would speak Nahuatl to the locals.

                                     

1. Examples

English, French, Russian, and Arabic are often used as pivot languages. Interlingua has been used as a pivot language in international conferences and has been proposed as a pivot language for the European Union. Esperanto was proposed as a pivot language in the Distributed Language Translation project and has been used in this way in the Majstro Tradukvortaro at the Esperanto website Majstro.com. The Universal Networking Language is an artificial language specifically designed for use as a pivot language.

                                     

2. In computing

Pivot coding is also a common method of translating data for computer systems. For example, the internet protocol, XML and high level languages are pivot codings of computer data which are then often rendered into internal binary formats for particular computer systems.

Unicode was designed to be usable as a pivot coding between various major existing character encodings, though its widespread adoption as a coding in its own right has made this usage unimportant.

                                     

3. In machine translation

Current statistical machine translation SMT systems use parallel corpora for source s and target t languages to achieve their good results, but good parallel corpora are not available for all languages. A pivot language p enables the bridge between two languages, to which existing parallel corpora are entirely or partially not yet at hand.

Pivot translation can be problematic because of the potential lack of fidelity of the information forwarded in the use of different corpora. From the use of two bilingual corpora s-p & p-t to set up the s-t bridge, linguistic data are inevitably lost. Rule-based machine translation RBMT helps the system rescue this information, so that the system does not rely entirely on statistics but also on structural linguistic information.

Three basic techniques are used to employ pivot language in machine translation: 1 triangulation, which focuses on phrase paralleling between source and pivot s-p and between pivot and target p-t; 2 transfer, which translates the whole sentence of the source language to a pivot language and then to the target language; and 3 synthesis, which builds a corpus of its own for system training.

The triangulation method also called phrase table multiplication calculates the probability of both translation correspondences and lexical weight in s-p and p-t, to try to induce a new s-t phrase table. The transfer method also called sentence translation strategy simply carries a straightforward translation of s into p and then another translation of p into t without using probabilistic tests as in triangulation. The synthetic method uses an existing corpus of s and tries to build an own synthetic corpus out of it that is used by the system to train itself. Then a bilingual s-p corpus is synthesized to enable a p-t translation.

A direct comparison between triangulation and transfer methods for SMT systems has shown that triangulation achieves much better results than transfer.

All three pivot language techniques enhance the performance of SMT systems. However, the synthetic technique doesnt work well with RBMT, and systems performances are lower than expected. Hybrid SMT/RBMT systems achieve better translation quality than strict-SMT systems that rely on bad parallel corpora.

The key role of RBMT systems is that they help fill the gap left in the translation process of s-p → p-t, in the sense that these parallels are included in the SMT model for s-t.



                                     
  • pivot the argument of the verb around which the sentence revolves Pivot language an artificial or natural language used as an intermediary language
  • Pivot Animator formerly Pivot Stickfigure Animator and usually shortened to Pivot is a freeware application that allows users to create stick - figure
  • which the pivot table groups together in a meaningful way. Pivot tables are a technique in data processing. They arrange and rearrange or pivot statistics
  • languages to query the model and calculate advanced measures. Power Pivot primarily uses DAX Data Analysis Expressions as its expression language
  • software portal Apache Pivot is an open - source platform for building rich web applications in Java or any JVM - compatible language It is released under
  • The syntactic pivot is the verb argument around which sentences revolve in a given language This usually means the following: If the verb has more
  • Pivot is a software application from Microsoft Live Labs that allows users to interact with and search large amounts of data. It is based on Microsoft s
  • traditional school subjects except French language and history. After starting law studies in Lyon, Pivot entered the Centre de formation des journalistes
  • Pivot was an American digital cable and satellite television network owned by Participant Media. The channel, targeted at young adults between 18 and
  • pipeline. Derivative code ISO IEC 10967 ISO IEC 11404 Language interoperability Pivot language Recursive transcompiling Specification language Transcompiler
  • The Geographical Pivot of History is an article submitted by Halford John Mackinder in 1904 to the Royal Geographical Society that advances his heartland