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ⓘ Software industry




                                               

Ghost (disk utility)

Ghost is a disk cloning and backup tool originally developed by Murray Haszard in 1995 for Binary Research. The technology was acquired in 1998 by Symantec. The backup and recovery functionality has been replaced by Symantec System Recovery SSR, although the Ghost imaging technology is still actively developed and is available as part of Symantec Ghost Solution Suite.

                                               

Grunt (software)

Grunt is a JavaScript task runner, a tool used to automatically perform frequent tasks such as minification, compilation, unit testing, and linting. It uses a command-line interface to run custom tasks defined in a file. Grunt was created by Ben Alman and is written in Node.js. It is distributed via npm. As of September 2016, there were more than 5.000 plugins available in the Grunt ecosystem. Companies that use Grunt include Adobe Systems, jQuery, Twitter, Mozilla, Bootstrap, Cloudant, Opera, WordPress, Walmart, and Microsoft.

                                               

Jenkins (software)

Jenkins is a free and open source automation server. Jenkins helps to automate the non-human part of the software development process, with continuous integration and facilitating technical aspects of continuous delivery. It is a server-based system that runs in servlet containers such as Apache Tomcat. It supports version control tools, including AccuRev, CVS, Subversion, Git, Mercurial, Perforce, TD/OMS, ClearCase and RTC, and can execute Apache Ant, Apache Maven and sbt based projects as well as arbitrary shell scripts and Windows batch commands. The creator of Jenkins is Kohsuke Kawagu ...

                                               

Mastodon (software)

Mastodon is a free and open-source self-hosted social networking service. It allows anyone to host their own server node in the network, and its various separately operated user bases are federated across many different servers. These servers are connected as a federated social network, allowing users from different servers to interact with each other seamlessly. Mastodon is a part of the wider Fediverse, allowing its users to also interact with users on different open platforms that support the same protocol, such as PeerTube and Friendica. Mastodon has microblogging features similar to T ...

                                               

Freeze (software engineering)

In software engineering, a freeze is a point in time in the development process after which the rules for making changes to the source code or related resources become more strict, or the period during which those rules are applied. A freeze helps move the project forward towards a release or the end of an iteration by reducing the scale or frequency of changes, and may be used to help meet a roadmap. The exact rules depend on the type of freeze and the particular development process in use; for example, they may include only allowing changes which fix bugs, or allowing changes only after ...

                                               

Sandbox (software development)

A sandbox is a testing environment that isolates untested code changes and outright experimentation from the production environment or repository, in the context of software development including Web development and revision control. Sandboxing protects "live" servers and their data, vetted source code distributions, and other collections of code, data and/or content, proprietary or public, from changes that could be damaging to a mission-critical system or which could simply be difficult to revert, regardless of the intent of the author of those changes. Sandboxes replicate at least the m ...

Software industry
                                     

ⓘ Software industry

The software industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, mainly either "license/maintenance based" or "Cloud based". The industry also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.

                                     

1. History

The word "software" was coined as a prank as early as 1953, but did not appear in print until the 1960s. Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC and IBM. The first company founded to provide software products and services was Computer Usage Company in 1955.

The software industry expanded in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities. Universities, government, and business customers created a demand for software. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers. Some were distributed freely between users of a particular machine for no charge. Others were done on a commercial basis, and other firms such as Computer Sciences Corporation founded in 1959 started to grow. Other influential or typical software companies begun in the early 1960s included Advanced Computer Techniques, Automatic Data Processing, Applied Data Research, and Informatics General. The computer/hardware makers started bundling operating systems, systems software and programming environments with their machines.

When Digital Equipment Corporation DEC brought a relatively low-priced microcomputer to market, it brought computing within the reach of many more companies and universities worldwide, and it spawned great innovation in terms of new, powerful programming languages and methodologies. New software was built for microcomputers, so other manufacturers including IBM, followed DECs example quickly, resulting in the IBM AS/400 amongst others.

The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer "PC" in the mid-1970s, which brought desktop computing to the office worker for the first time. In the following years, it also created a growing market for games, applications, and utilities. DOS, Microsofts first operating system product, was the dominant operating system at the time.

In the early years of the 21st century, another successful business model has arisen for hosted software, called software-as-a-service, or SaaS; this was at least the third time this model had been attempted. From the point of view of producers of some proprietary software, SaaS reduces the concerns about unauthorized copying, since it can only be accessed through the Web, and by definition no client software is loaded onto the end users PC.

                                     

2. Size of the industry

According to industry analyst Gartner, the size of the worldwide software industry in 2013 was US$407.3 billion, an increase of 4.8% over 2012. As in past years, the largest four software vendors were Microsoft, Oracle Corporation, IBM, and SAP respectively.

                                     

3. Mergers and acquisitions

The software industry has been subject to a high degree of consolidation over the past couple of decades. Between 1995 and 2018 around 37.039 mergers and acquisitions have been announced with a total known value of US$ 1.166 bil. USD. The highest number and value of deals was set in 2000 during the high times of the dot-com bubble with 2.674 transactions valued at 105. bil. USD. In 2017, 2.547 deals were announced valued at $111 billion. Approaches to successfully acquire and integrate software companies are available.

                                     

4. Business models within the software industry

Business models of software companies have been widely discussed. Network effects in software ecosystems, networks of companies, and their customers are an important element in the strategy of software companies.

                                     
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