ⓘ Robert Trivers


ⓘ Robert Trivers

Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist. Trivers proposed the theories of reciprocal altruism, parental investment, facultative sex ratio determination, and parent–offspring conflict. He has also contributed by explaining self-deception as an adaptive evolutionary strategy and discussing intragenomic conflict.


1. Education

Trivers studied evolutionary theory with Ernst Mayr and William Drury at Harvard from 1968 to 1972, when he earned his PhD in biology. His first major paper, Reciprocal Altruism, was published in 1971.


2. Career and research

Trivers was on the faculty at Harvard University from 1973 to 1978, and then moved to the University of California, Santa Cruz where he was a faculty member 1978 to 1994. He is currently a Rutgers University notable faculty member. In the 2008–09 academic year, he was a Fellow at the Berlin Institute for Advanced Study.

Trivers was awarded the 2007 Crafoord Prize in Biosciences for "his fundamental analysis of social evolution, conflict and cooperation".

Trivers met Huey P. Newton, Chairman of the Black Panther Party, in 1978 when Newton applied while in prison to do a reading course with Trivers as part of a graduate degree in History of Consciousness at UC Santa Cruz. Trivers and Newton became close friends: Newton was godfather to one of Triverss daughters. Trivers joined the Black Panther Party in 1979. Trivers and Newton published an analysis of the role of self-deception by the flight crew in the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. Trivers was "ex-communicated" from the Panthers by Newton in 1982 for "his own good."

Trivers wrote the original foreword to Richard Dawkins book The Selfish Gene, in which Trivers first proposed his adaptive theory of self-deception.

In 2015, Rutgers University suspended Trivers with pay as part of an ongoing dispute regarding a class the Anthropology department had assigned to him. Trivers said that he was told to teach the class even though he objected that he knew nothing about the specific subject. In his first lecture, Trivers told the class he would do his best to learn the subject along with them and with the help of guest lecturers. Rutgers suspended Trivers for involving the students in the controversy. Trivers told the Rutgers campus newsletter that Rutgerss officials refused to meet with him. Trivers also told the student paper: "You would think the university would show a little respect for my teaching abilities on subjects that I know about and not force me to teach a course on a subject that I do not at all master."


2.1. Career and research Influence

Trivers is among the most influential evolutionary theorists alive today. Steven Pinker considers Trivers to be "one of the great thinkers in the history of Western thought", who has:

.inspired an astonishing amount of research and commentary in psychology and biology - the fields of sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, Darwinian social science, and behavioral ecology are in large part attempt to test and flesh out Triverss ideas. It is no coincidence that E. O. Wilsons Sociobiology and Richard Dawkins The Selfish Gene were published in 1975 and 1976 respectively, just a few years after Triverss seminal papers. Both bestselling authors openly acknowledged that they were popularizing Triverss ideas and the research they spawned. Likewise for the much-talked-about books on evolutionary psychology in the 1990s - The Adapted Mind, The Red Queen, Born to Rebel, The Origins of Virtue, The Moral Animal, and my own How the Mind Works. Each of these books is based in large part on Triverss ideas and the explosion of research they inspired. "The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 46 1: 35–57. doi:10.1086/406755. JSTOR 2822435.

  • Trivers, R. L. 1972 Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell Ed. Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871-1971 pp 136–179. Chicago, Aldine.
  • Trivers, RL; Willard, DE 1973. "Natural selection of parental ability to vary the sex ratio of offspring". Science. 179 4068: 90–2. Bibcode:1973Sci.179.90T. doi:10.1126/science.179.4068.90. JSTOR 1734960. PMID 4682135.
  • Trivers, R. L. 1974. "Parent-Offspring Conflict". American Zoologist. 14 1: 249–264. doi:10.1093/icb/14.1.249.
  • Trivers, R. L.; Hare, H. 1976. "Haploidploidy and the evolution of the social insect". Science. 191 4224: 249–63. Bibcode:1976Sci.191.249T. doi:10.1126/science.1108197. PMID 1108197.
  • Trivers, R. L. 1991 Deceit and self-deception: The relationship between communication and consciousness. In: M. Robinson and L. Tiger eds. Man and Beast Revisited, Smithsonian, Washington, DC, pp. 175–191.


    2.2. Career and research Books

    • Burt, A. & Trivers, R. L. 2006 Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements. Belknap Press, Harvard. ISBN 0-674-01713-7
    • Trivers R 2011 The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life Basic Books ISBN 978-0-465-02755-2
    • Trivers R, Palestis BG, Zaatari D. 2009 The Anatomy of a Fraud: Symmetry and Dance TPZ Publishers ISBN 978-0-615-28756-0
    • Trivers, R. L. 2002 Natural Selection and Social Theory: Selected Papers of Robert L. Trivers. Evolution and Cognition Series Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-513062-6
    • Trivers, R. L. 1985 Social Evolution. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.
    • Trivers R 2015 Wild Life: Adventures of an Evolutionary Biologist. Plympton. ISBN 978-1938972126
    • protection of offspring Parental investment theory, a term coined by Robert Trivers in 1972, predicts that the sex that invests more in its offspring will
    • Tit for Tat essentially entails the same concept as Trivers reciprocal altruism. Unlike Trivers original publication which provides conceptual explanations
    • Here are the tapes The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2018. Trivers Robert L. Willard, Dan E. 1973 Natural selection of parental ability
    • is in evolutionary biology. In 1973, with biologist Robert Trivers Willard published the Trivers Willard hypothesis, that female mammals could control
    • biologist geneticist John Maynard Smith on evolutionarily stable strategies, and Robert Trivers about reciprocal altruism and competition between siblings versus parent
    • including Richard Lee, Robert Trivers Sarah Hrdy, Peter Ellison, Barbara Smuts, Patricia Draper, Henry Harpending, Marjorie Shostak, Robert Bailey, Nadine Peacock
    • film directed by James Tinling and written by Joseph Hoffman and Barry Trivers The film stars Jane Withers, Arleen Whelan, George Ernest, Richard Bond
    • drama film directed by Ricardo Cortez and written by John Larkin and Barry Trivers The film stars Lynn Bari, C. Aubrey Smith, Donald Woods, Amanda Duff
    • built from first principles such as his 1986 paper written with Robert Trivers Following his PhD he held postdoctoral positions at the University
    • 11. Wilson 1975, p. 3. Trivers 1971. Trivers 1971, pp. 38 39. Trivers 1971, p. 35. Trivers 1971, p. 47. More pointedly, Trivers also said p. 48 No concept

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