Back

ⓘ Spoken language




Spoken language
                                     

ⓘ Spoken language

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.

In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument. Similarly, spoken language tends to convey subjective information, including the relationship between the speaker and the audience, whereas written language tends to convey objective information.

The relationship between spoken language and written language is complex. Within the field of linguistics the current consensus is that speech is an innate human capability, and written language is a cultural invention. However some linguists, such as those of the Prague school, argue that written and spoken language possess distinct qualities which would argue against written language being dependent on spoken language for its existence.

Both vocal and sign languages are composed of words. In vocal languages, words are made up from a limited set of vowels and consonants, and often tone. In sign languages, words are made up from a limited set of shapes, orientations, locations movements of the hands, and often facial expressions; in both cases, the building blocks are called phonemes. In both vocal and sign languages, words are grammatically and prosodically linked into phrases, clauses, and larger units of discourse.

Hearing children acquire as their first language the language that is used around them, whether vocal, cued if they are sighted, or signed. Deaf children can do the same with Cued Speech or sign language if either visual communication system is used around them. Vocal language are traditionally taught to them in the same way that written language must be taught to hearing children. See oralism. Teachers give particular emphasis on spoken language with children who speak a different primary language outside of the school. For the child it is considered important, socially and educationally, to have the opportunity to understand multiple languages.

                                     
  • Language Spoken at Home is a data set published by the United States Census Bureau on languages in the United States. It is based on a three - part language
  • Japanese: The Spoken Language JSL is an introductory textbook series for learning Japanese. JSL was written by Eleanor Harz Jorden in collaboration
  • Of the languages spoken in Texas none has been designated the official language As of 2005, around 66.36 of residents speak English at home with around
  • origin distinction dichotomy between languages and dialects. Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media
  • of sound. Spoken word has existed for many years. Long before writing, through a cycle of practicing, listening and memorizing, each language drew on its
  • change and language shift. In some areas, there is no reliable census data, the data is not current, or the census may not record languages spoken or record
  • striking similarities among sign languages Linguists consider both spoken and signed communication to be types of natural language meaning that both emerged
  • The languages of the Caribbean reflect the region s diverse history and culture. There are six official languages spoken in the Caribbean. The six languages
  • Timan, and Mao. It is the native language of 12 of Chadians. Chadian Arabic s associated lingua franca is widely spoken in Chad, so that Chadian Arabic
  • suomen puhekieli is the standard colloquial dialect of the Finnish language It is spoken in the Greater Helsinki region, and in urbanized areas in the Tavastian
  • Chimuan language formerly spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in an inland village. First documented in 1607, the language was widely spoken in the
  • spoken language Jewish communities were dispersed around the world in the diaspora which followed the Jewish - Roman wars. Some adopted the languages of