ⓘ Kolokol (newspaper)

Kolokol (newspaper)

ⓘ Kolokol (newspaper)

Kolokol was the first Russian censorship-free weekly newspaper in Russian and French languages, published by Alexander Herzen and Nikolai Ogaryov in London and Geneva. It had a circulation of up to 2500 copies. Despite being banned in Russia, it was well known and had a significant influence on the reformist and revolutionary movements of the 1860s.

Initially the publishers viewed Kolokol as a supplement "прибавочные листы" to a literary and socio-political almanac Polyarnaya Zvezda Polar Star, but it soon became the leader of the Russian censorship-free press. The newspapers Pod sud To Trial; 1859–1862 and Obshcheye veche General Veche; 1862–1864 were published as supplements to Kolokol.

At Kolokol s base was a theory of Russian peasant socialism, elaborated by Herzen. Its political platform included democratic demands for liberation of peasants with land, and abolition of censorship and corporal punishment. Besides the articles by Herzen and Ogaryov, Kolokol published a variety of material on peoples living conditions, social struggle in Russia, and information about abuses and secret plans of the authorities. Nikolai Dobrolyubov, Nikolai Serno-Solovyovich, Mikhail Mikhailov, Nikolai Utin, Lev Mechnikov, Mikhail Elpidin and others were among the papers correspondents and distributors. Writers and liberal figures such as Ivan Aksakov, Yuri Samarin, Alexander Koshelyov, Ivan Turgenev and others delivered material for Kolokol.

After the Emancipation reform of 1861, Kolokol took the side of revolutionary democracy and found itself in opposition to liberalism. The newspaper began publishing texts of proclamations, articles by Herzen and Ogaryov condemning and exposing problems with the reform, and other material from the Russian revolutionary underground. Kolokol favored the formation of a clandestine revolutionary organization Land and Liberty. After the 1861 reform, Kolokol severed its relations with the liberals due to Herzen and Ogaryov’s active support of the January Uprising in Poland. In order to strengthen its ties with the new emigres concentrated in Switzerland, Kolokol moved its office to Geneva. Publication of Kolokol ceased in 1867 due to unfavorable conditions. In 1867-1869, they published Kolokol: A Supplement to the First Decade Колокол. Прибавочный лист к первому десятилетию, six issues of Kolokol. Russian Edition Колокол. Русское прибавление and Supplement du Kolokol in French. In 1870, Ogaryov together with Sergey Nechayev published six more issues of Kolokol, which differed significantly from Herzen’s Kolokol.

  • and was a political admirer and subscriber to Herzen s thick journal, Kolokol Nikolay worked on the farm throughout his youth and was taught to read
  • The Ivan the Great Bell Tower Russian: Колокольня Ивана Великого, Kolokol nya Ivana Velikogo is a church tower inside the Moscow Kremlin complex. With
  • correspondence with Mroczkowski Berne 1868 florian - Discours de Berne in Kolokol of 1 December 1868 p. 218 La Baronata James Guillaume - l internationale
  • investigator Kondrashov Maria Antipp as Irina Anton Kukushkin as translator Kolokol chikov Denis Yasik as translator Bubentsov Roman Nesterenko as military
  • and was never found. Jozef Mianowski VIVAT POLONIA Alexander Herzen, Kolokol March 15, 1861 Alina Barszczewska - Krupa 1976 Szymon Konarski. Warsaw:
  • the target of many satires and received a negative mention in Herzen s Kolokol One of the best Russian authors shouldn t have taken this sort of job
  • Emancipation of 1861. One particular source of indignation in Europe was Kolokol published in London, England 1857 65 and Geneva 1865 67 It collected
  • States, then to London where he worked with Alexander Herzen on the journal Kolokol The Bell In 1863, he left to join the insurrection in Poland, but failed
  • Zemlya i volya With Mikhail Bakunin he searched for means to disseminate Kolokol in southern Russia, the Caucasus, and the Ottoman Empire. In Paris he met

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