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ⓘ Dual loyalty




                                     

ⓘ Dual loyalty

Some scholars refer to a growing trend of transnationalism and suggest that as societies become more heterogeneous and multi-cultural, the term "dual loyalty" increasingly becomes a meaningless bromide. According to the theory of transnationalism, migration as well as other factors including improved global communication produces new forms of identity that transcend traditional notions of physical and cultural space. Nina Glick Schiller, Linda Basch, and Cristina Blanc-Szanton define a process by which immigrants "link together" their country of origin and their country of settlement.

The transnationalist view is that "dual loyalty" is a potentially positive expression of multi-culturalism, and can contribute to the diversity and strength of civil society. While this view is popular in many academic circles, others are skeptical of this idea. As one paper describes it,

On occasion, these imagined communities conform to the root meaning of transnational, extending beyond loyalties that connect to any specific place of origin or ethnic or national group. Yet what immigration scholars describe as transnationalism is usually its opposite. highly particularistic attachments antithetical to those by-products of globalization denoted by the concept of "transnational civil society" and its related manifestations.

Beyond its usage in particular instances, the term "dual loyalty" versus "transnationalism" continues to be the subject of much debate. As one academic writes:

Although the events of September 11th may have shaken some assumptions – at least in the United States – about the nature of transnational networks and their capacity to facilitate flows of people, goods, and ideas across borders, the terms "globalization" and "transnationalism" remain relatively stable, albeit frustratingly imprecise additions to the language of social sciences, including anthropology.

                                     

1. Historical examples

Other historical examples of actual or perceived "dual loyalty" include the following:

  • The Chinese Catholics have been forced by the government of the Peoples Republic of China to substitute the Roman Catholic Church in China by the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association.
  • Roman Catholics are subject to the Pope on religious matters. This has often perceived as dual loyalty by powers opposed to the Holy See.
  • During the English Reformation, many important English and Scottish figures, such as Thomas More, Mary, Queen of Scots and Edmund Campion, were tried and executed for their alleged double loyalty to the Papacy and infidelity to the Crown.
  • During John F. Kennedys campaign for and brief tenure as U.S. President, some opponents questioned whether a Roman Catholic President of the United States had a divided loyalty with respect to the Papacy and Vatican City.
  • During World War II, a number of United States citizens of Japanese, German, and Italian ancestry, including some born in the U.S., were confined to internment camps see Internment of Japanese Americans.
  • The government of Iran accuses the Bahai minority of having loyalty to foreign powers see Iranian anti-Bahai conspiracy theories.
  • Jews in the Jewish Diaspora have been accused of dual loyalty by the Romans in the 1st century, by the French in the Dreyfus Affair in the late 19th century, in Stalin-era Soviet Union in the 20th century. Before the creation of Israel, Jewish anti-Zionists used the accusation against other Jews. While today some use the phrase in a "neutral and non-pejorative fashion," this use can obscure the fact that home nations and Israel may have sharp political differences. The 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq lead to such accusations against Jewish neoconservatives, vocal proponents of war against Iraq who allegedly sought to undermine Arab nations hostile to Israel i.e., the term "Israel-firster".
  • The loyalty of many Americans to the U.S. government was called into question during the Cold War due to alleged Communist sympathies, resulting in "witch-hunts" of various government officials, celebrities and other citizens see McCarthyism.
  • "Dual loyalty" continues to be a concern of critics of the U.S.s immigration policy, particularly in those states which border Mexico.
  • The Hindu minority in Muslim-majority Bangladesh has often been accused of dual loyalty to neighboring India by the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and even by Sheikh Hasina who heads the largest political outfit in Bangladesh hailing secularism.
  • Muslims living in Western countries, especially during periods of heightened tensions, such as after September 11, 2001, or during the Danish Cartoon Controversy of 2005–2006, are sometimes accused of being more loyal to the Muslim ummah than to their country.
  • The Ahmadiyya movement in Islam has been accused of dual loyalty, to the British, Israel and sometimes India. In particular, it is sometimes alleged that the movement itself was started by the British to divide the Muslims and that in the modern times the members of the movement are agents of Israel.
                                     
  • listed by Miller in the slide, responded that Miller echoes conspiracy dual loyalty tropes. It is extremely disturbing that this was taught to students
  • to buyers who become clients. Buyers would have to agree to some form of dual agency in the event that they wished to buy a home which that company has
  • Latini 10 2 2.4, quoted in Rees, Layers of Loyalty 44 45. Barnes, New Empire, 32 33 Rees, Layers of Loyalty 30. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 6
  • fueling the war machine against Iran, and accuses some of them of having dual loyalty He notes that prior to 1995 the Ambassador to Israel was explicitly
  • Lardinois continued his study but in March 1943 the refused to sign a loyalty oath to the German occupation authority but to escape prosecution he was
  • where she was presented with a certificate after reciting the pledge of loyalty to Australia. She also applied for an Australian passport. However, she
  • Austria - Hungary, often referred to as the Austro - Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between
  • of the trade period, the Australian planters started to recruit in the Loyalty Islands early 1860s, Kingsmill Islands and the Banks Islands around the

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