ⓘ Viridiplantae


ⓘ Viridiplantae

Viridiplantae are a clade of eukaryotic organisms that comprise in the region of 450.000–500.000 species and play an important roles in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants, which emerged within them. Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them. They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins. More than 350.000 species of Viridiplantae exist.

In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom, under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae. Adl et al., who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally. The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta as well as the basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae. Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes, Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae.

A taxonomic evaluation of eukaryotes based on myosin distribution showed the Viridiplantae lost class-I myosins.


1. Phylogeny and classification

Leliaert et al. 2012

Simplified phylogeny of the Viridiplantae, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.

  • Viridiplantae
  • Chlorophyta
  • core chlorophytes
  • Ulvophyceae
  • Trentepohliales
  • Oltmannsiellopsidales
  • Dasycladales
  • Ulvales-Ulotrichales
  • Bryopsidales
  • Cladophorales
  • Chlorophyceae
  • Oedogoniales
  • Chaetopeltidales
  • Chlamydomonadales
  • Chaetophorales
  • Sphaeropleales
  • Trebouxiophyceae
  • Chlorellales
  • Oocystaceae
  • Prasiola clade
  • Trebouxiales
  • Microthamniales
  • Chlorodendrophyceae
  • Pedinophyceae
  • prasinophytes paraphyletic
  • Mamiellophyceae
  • Palmophyllales
  • Prasinococcales
  • Pycnococcaceae
  • Pyramimonadales
  • Nephroselmidophyceae
  • Streptophyta
  • Charophyta
  • Coleochaetophyceae
  • Klebsormidiophyceae
  • Zygnematophyceae
  • Charophyceae
  • Chlorokybophyceae
  • Mesostigmatophyceae
  • Embryophyta land plants


Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.

  • Rubiaceae In: Embryophyta At: Streptophytina At: Streptophyta At: Viridiplantae At: Eudaryota At: Taxonomy At: UniProt Guettarda At: Annotated Checklist
  • vacuole probably evolved several times independently, even within the Viridiplantae Contractile vacuoles stars were first observed by Spallanzani 1776
  • At: Cinchonoideae At: Rubiaceae violetIn: Embryophyta At: Streptophytina At: Streptophyta At: Viridiplantae At: Eudaryota At: Taxonomy At: UniProt
  • eudicots Gunneridae At: Eudicotyledoneae In: Embryophyta At: Streptophytina At: Streptophyta At: Viridiplantae At: Eukaryota At: Taxonomy At: UniProt
  • with the red algae Rhodophyta and the green algae plus land plants Viridiplantae or Chloroplastida they form the Archaeplastida. However, the relationships
  • of monophyletic taxa in the family Desmidiaceae Zygnematophyceae, Viridiplantae The genus Cosmarium Am J Bot. 95 9 1079 1095. doi: 10.3732 ajb
  • throughout many species. Orthologs can be found throughout all Eukaryotes, Viridiplantae Fungi, Protists, Bacteria and Eubacteria. No paralogs have yet been
  • Rubiaceae In: Embryophyta At: Streptophytina At: Streptophyta At: Viridiplantae At: Eudaryota At: Taxonomy At: UniProt Hedyotis At: List by Species
  • eight kingdoms: Bacteria, Eufungi, Ciliofungi, Animalia, Biliphyta, Viridiplantae Cryptophyta, and Euglenozoa. In 1993, he revised his system particularly

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