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ⓘ ISO/IEC 19788




                                     

ⓘ ISO/IEC 19788

ISO/IEC 19788 Information technology – Learning, education and training – Metadata for learning resources is a multi-part standard prepared by subcommittee SC36 of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC1, Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training. This committee was created to deal with the consequences of substantial overlap in areas of standardization done at the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission.

                                     

1. Purpose

The ISO 15836 Dublin Core DC and the IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object Metadata LOM are widely used to describe learning resources. However, interoperability among DC data sets is challenging, as best practices are only recommended. Instead of using ISO 8601, a DC Date element can be written in plain language and not processed by queries. Ambiguous definitions pose another challenge as data elements and vocabulary values can be interpreted in a subjective way. For example, the DC Date can be linked to resource creation time, update or publication. In the LOM, the Cost element can only have a" yes” or" no” values. This is also true for LOM records as they are based on a wide variety of Application profiles. The ISO/IEC 19788 standard is intended to provide optimal compatibility with both DC and the LOM and supports multilingual and cultural adaptability requirements from a global perspective. The standard has two primary purposes:

  • support search, discovery, acquisition, evaluation, and use of learning resources by learners, instructors or automated software processes.
  • facilitate the identification and specification of the metadata elements required to describe a learning resource by providing metadata elements and their attributes
                                     

2. Resource Description Framework Approach

The Resource Description Framework is a method for conceptual description of metadata information. Assertions about a learning resource are made using triples where subject represents the learning resource, predicate is a property identifier and object is the property value.

In a MLR triple, the subject is always the literal of an identifier of the learning resource, such as a URI or ISBN. The predicate is also a literal, the MLR data element specification DES identifier. For example, ISO_IEC_19788-2:2011 DES0100 tells us that this DES can be found in part 2 of the standard and DES0100 is the data element used to identify the title of the learning resource. Finally, the object can be a literal in this example, the book title or a resource class a set of accepted values, such as a list of terms identifiers from a controlled vocabulary list.

Computers can easily connect and query linked data structured information. For example, a teacher wishing to annotate a learning resource may do it a single RDFa triple. A repository service could gather all the information about a given learning resource from a wide variety of external sources, providing much richer information than a single provider record.

                                     

3. Parts description

Part 1: Framework

Provides principles, rules and structures for the specification of the description of a learning resource

Part 4: Technical elements

Provides information in the form of metadata elements about conditions pertaining to the technical requirements, location, and size information

Part 9: Data elements for Persons

Provides data elements for the description of persons natural or legal that are related to the description of a learning resource.

Part 11: Migration from LOM to MLR

Provides guidance in the form of rules and heuristics for the conversion of an IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 LOM record to a MLR data element set.

                                     

3.1. Parts description Part 1: Framework

Provides principles, rules and structures for the specification of the description of a learning resource

                                     

3.2. Parts description Part 2: Dublin Core elements

Provides a based level made of the 15 data element set for the description of learning resources, from the ISO 15836:2009 The Dublin Core metadata element set, using the framework provided in Part 1.

                                     

3.3. Parts description Part 4: Technical elements

Provides information in the form of metadata elements about conditions pertaining to the technical requirements, location, and size information

                                     

3.4. Parts description Part 5: Educational elements

Provides an extensive set of data elements describing the intended or actual use of learning resources across various jurisdictional, cultural and linguistic settings. The description of pedagogical use of a learning resource includes annotations, contributions, curriculum, educational outcome, audience and learning activity.

                                     

3.5. Parts description Part 7: Bindings

Part 7 provides RDF mappings of the different MLR entities introduced in the MLR framework: Data element specifications, resource classes, data elements, application profiles, MLR records and data element group specifications. It also provides an OWL 2 DL ontology for the resource classes and data element specifications.

                                     

3.6. Parts description Part 8: Data elements for MLR records

This Part enables the support storage of learning resource description in databases and the exchange of descriptions through harvesting mechanisms. It can be used to keep track of the record editing process including global metadata author identification, last record update and application profile used for the description of a learning resource.

                                     

3.7. Parts description Part 9: Data elements for Persons

Provides data elements for the description of persons natural or legal that are related to the description of a learning resource.

                                     

3.8. Parts description Part 11: Migration from LOM to MLR

Provides guidance in the form of rules and heuristics for the conversion of an IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 LOM record to a MLR data element set.