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ⓘ Glaucous gull




Glaucous gull
                                     

ⓘ Glaucous gull

The glaucous gull is a large gull, the second-largest gull in the world. It breeds in Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and winters south to shores of the Holarctic. The genus name is from Latin larus, which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific name hyperboreus is Latin for "northern" from the Ancient Greek Huperboreoi people from the far north "Glaucous" is from Latin glaucus and denotes a bluish-green or grey colour.

This gull is migratory, wintering from in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as far south as the British Isles and northernmost states of the United States, also on the Great Lakes. A few birds sometimes reach the southern USA and northern Mexico.

                                     

1. Description

This is a large and powerful gull, second-largest of all gull species and very pale in all plumage, with no black on either the wings or the tail. Adults are pale grey above, with a thick, yellow bill. Immatures are very pale grey with a pink and black bill. This species is considerably larger, bulkier, and thicker-billed than the similar Iceland gull, and can sometimes equal the size of the great black-backed gull, the oft-titled largest gull species. In some areas, glaucous gulls are about the same weight as great black-backed gulls or even heavier, and their maximum weight is greater. They can weigh from 960 to 2.700 g 2.12 to 5.95 lb, with the sexes previously reported to average 1.55 kg 3.4 lb in males and 1.35 kg 3.0 lb in females. At the colony on Coats Island in Canada, the gulls are nearly 15% heavier than some other known populations, with a mean weight 1.86 kg 4.1 lb in five males and 1.49 kg 3.3 lb in seven females. One other study claimed even higher weights for glaucous gulls, as on Wrangel Island, 9 males reportedly averaged 2.32 kg 5.1 lb and 2.1 kg 4.6 lb in six females, which if accurate, would make the glaucous gull the heaviest gull and shorebird in the world if not as far as is known the largest in length on average. These gulls range from 55 to 77 cm 22 to 30 in length and can span 132 to 170 cm 52 to 67 in, with some specimens possibly attaining 182 cm 72 in, across the wings. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 40.8 to 50.1 cm 16.1 to 19.7 in, the bill is 4.9 to 6.9 cm 1.9 to 2.7 in and the tarsus is 6 to 7.7 cm 2.4 to 3.0 in. They take four years to reach maturity.

The call is a "laughing" cry similar to that of the herring gull, but deeper.

                                     

2. Subspecies

The four recognized subspecies are:

  • L. h. pallidissimus, Portenko, 1939: found from north-western Siberia to the Bering Sea
  • L. h. leuceretes, Schleep, 1819: found from north-central Canada to Greenland and Iceland
  • L. h. barrovianus, Ridgway, 1886: found from Alaska to north-west Canada
  • L. h. hyperboreus, Gunnerus, 1767: nominate, found from northern Europe to north-western Siberia
                                     

3. Ecology

This species breeds colonially or singly on coasts and cliffs, making a lined nest on the ground or cliff. Normally, two to four light brown eggs with dark brown splotches are laid.

These are omnivores like most Larus gulls, and they eat fish, insects, molluscs, starfish, offal, scraps, eggs, small birds, small mammals, and carrion, as well as seeds, berries, and grains.

                                     
  • The grey - headed gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus also known as the grey - hooded gull is a small gull which breeds patchily in South America and Africa
  • Saunders s gull or the Chinese black - headed gull Chroicocephalus saundersi is a species of gull in the family Laridae. It is found in China, Hong Kong
  • ring - billed gull Larus delawarensis is a medium - sized gull The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large
  • Belcher s gull Larus belcheri also known as the band - tailed gull is a bird in the family Laridae found along the Pacific coast of South America. It
  • Franklin s gull Leucophaeus pipixcan is a small length 12.6 14.2 in, 32 36 cm gull The genus name Leucophaeus is from Ancient Greek leukos, white
  • The slender - billed gull Chroicocephalus genei is a mid - sized gull which breeds very locally around the Mediterranean and the north of the western Indian

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