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ⓘ 1793




1793
                                     

ⓘ 1793

1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1793rd year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 793rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1793, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

The French Republic introduced the French Revolutionary Calendar starting with the year I.

                                     

1.1. Events January–June

  • Second Battle of Neerwinden: A coalition army of Habsburg Monarchy and Dutch Republic troops repulses attacks from French Republican forces, near Neerwinden, Flemish Brabant.
  • March 18
  • January 21 – French Revolution: After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Citizen Capet, Louis XVI of France, is guillotined in Paris.
  • March 5 – French troops are defeated by Austrian forces, and Liege is recaptured.
  • The first republican state in Germany, the Republic of Mainz, is declared by Andreas Joseph Hofmann.
  • February 22 – French expedition to Sardinia: A small French and Corsican force briefly occupies the small Sardinian island of La Maddalena, then withdraws to Corsica. Young lieutenant Napoleon Buonaparte is second-in-command.
  • February 25 – George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting, as President of the United States.
  • January 23 – Second Partition of Poland: The Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia partition the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
  • January 13 – Nicolas Jean Hugon de Bassville, a representative of Revolutionary France, is lynched by a mob in Rome.
  • January 9 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first to fly in a gas balloon in the United States.
  • February 1 – French Revolutionary Wars: The French First Republic declares war on Great Britain, the Dutch Republic and on March 7 Spain. During the year, the War of the First Coalition is joined by Portugal, the Holy Roman Empire, Naples and Tuscany in opposition to France.
  • February 27 – The Giles Resolutions are introduced to the United States House of Representatives, asking the House to condemn Alexander Hamiltons handling of loans.
  • February 11 – French expedition to Sardinia Expedition de Sardaigne: A French fleet under admiral Laurent Truguet debarks troops near Cagliari in Sardinia.
  • March 1–3 – John Langdon serves as President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
  • March 4 – George Washington is sworn in as President of the United States in Philadelphia, for his second term.
  • January 7 – The Ebel riot occurs in Sweden.
  • May 25 – French expedition to Sardinia: The last French troops occupying the small Sardinian island of San Pietro surrender to a Spanish fleet.
  • June 21 – The Town of Hamilton is incorporated.
  • June 2 – French Revolution: The Girondins are overthrown in France.
  • June – The Macartney Embassy, a British diplomatic mission to China led by George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, reaches Canton, but will be rebuffed by the Qianlong Emperor.
  • April 25 – The pioneer parishes of New Orleans and Louisiana are erected, as well as incorporated into the Diocese of Louisiana and the Two Floridas.
  • June 10 – French Revolution: The Jardin des Plantes and the Museum national dhistoire naturelle are created by the National Convention. The museum opens in Paris the following year, and the garden houses one of the first public zoos.
  • April 22 – George Washington signs the Neutrality Proclamation.
  • April 6 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Committee of Public Safety is established in France, with Georges Danton as its head.
  • April 9 – Edmond-Charles Genêt, Frances new Minister to the United States, arrives at Charleston, South Carolina.
  • May 31 – French Revolution: Regular troops under François Hanriot demand that the Girondins be expelled from the National Convention.
                                     

1.2. Events July–December

  • July 13 – French Revolution: Charlotte Corday kills Jean-Paul Marat in his bath.
  • July 20 – Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzies 1792–1793 Peace River expedition to the Pacific Ocean reaches its goal at Bella Coola, British Columbia, making him the first known person to complete a transcontinental crossing of northern North America.
  • July 9 – The Act Against Slavery is passed in Upper Canada.
  • Crowds in Paris burn monarchist emblems.
  • July 17 – French Revolution: Charlotte Corday is executed.
  • August 1–November 9 – The yellow fever epidemic of 1793 hits Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 5.000 die.
  • July 29 – John Graves Simcoe decides to build a fort and settlement at Toronto, having sailed into the bay there.
  • August 10 – French Revolution – Feast of Unity
  • The Louvre in Paris opens to the public as an art museum.
  • September 17 – The Army of the Eastern Pyrenees, one of the French Revoluntionary armies, defeats a Spanish force at the Battle of Peyrestortes.
  • September 5 – French Revolution: The National Convention begins the 10-month Reign of Terror.
  • October 5 – French Revolutionary Wars: Raid on Genoa – The British Royal Navy boards and captures French warships, sheltering in the neutral port of Genoa.
  • September 20 – British troops from Jamaica land on the island of Saint-Domingue to join the Haitian Revolution in opposition to the French Republic and its newly-freed slaves; on 22 September the main French naval base on the island surrenders peacefully to the Royal Navy.
  • September 18 – The cornerstone to the future United States Capitol is dedicated by U.S. President Washington at the site of the new Federal City on the Potomac River.
  • August 23 – French Revolution: The following universal conscription decree is enacted in France: "The young men shall go to battle and the married men shall forge arms. The women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; children shall tear rags into lint. The old men will be guided to the public places of the cities to kindle the courage of the young warriors and to preach the unity of the Republic and the hatred of kings."
  • October 15–16 – French Revolution: Battle of Wattignies – A French Republican force commanded by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan compels a Habsburg Austrian Coalition army to retire.
  • September 8 – The first Cirio de Nazare is celebrated in Belem.
  • October 24 – French Revolution:The French Republican Calendar is adopted by the National Convention.
  • December 9 – New York Citys first daily newspaper, the American Minerva, is established by Noah Webster.
  • November 10 – The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution reaches a climax with the celebration of the Goddess of Reason in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris.
  • December 8 – French Revolution: Madame du Barry is guillotined.
  • December 18 – French forces under Dugommier capture Toulon from royalists and British forces under Vice Admiral Lord Hood. The British fire the dockyards and take 16 ships, one of which, the Lutine, becomes a famous treasure ship.
  • November 12 – French Revolution: Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first Mayor of Paris, is guillotined.
  • December 23 – French Revolution: War in the Vendee: Battle of Savenay – A Republican force decisively defeats the counterrevolutionary Catholic and Royal Army, ending the Viree de Galerne.
  • October 16 – French Revolution: Marie Antoinette, the widowed queen consort of Louis XVI of France, is guillotined in the Place de la Revolution in Paris at the conclusion of a 2-day trial before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
                                     

1.3. Events Undated

  • Eli Whitney invents a cotton gin. This causes a resurgence of slavery in the South.
  • Dominique Jean Larrey, chief surgeon of the French Revolutionary Army, creates the first battlefield "flying ambulance" service.
  • Lawrence Academy Groton, Massachusetts is chartered.
  • The Al Bu Falah move to Abu Dhabi.
  • Niccolo Paganini debuts as a violin virtuoso at age 11 in his birthplace of Genoa.
  • The first year of regular production begins for the United States Mint, and the half cent is minted for the first time.
                                     

2. Births

  • April 19 – Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria d. 1875
  • March 3 – William Macready, English actor d. 1873
  • August 19 – Barthelemy Thimonnier, French inventor d. 1857
  • July 18 – Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz, French stage actress, later Princess Consort and regent de facto of Monaco d. 1879
  • September 25 – Felicia Hemans, British poet d. 1835
  • January 14 – John C. Clark, American politician d. 1852
  • March 6 – William Dick, Scottish veterinarian, founder of Edinburgh Veterinary College d. 1866
  • November 17 – Charles Lock Eastlake, English painter d. 1865
  • March 4 – Karl Lachmann, German philologist d. 1851
  • March 2 – Sam Houston, American President of the Republic of Texas d. 1863
  • April 8 – Karl Ludwig Hencke, German astronomer d. 1866
  • January 11 – Johanna Stegen, German heroine d. 1842
  • November 3 – Stephen F. Austin, American pioneer d. 1836
  • June 1 – Augustus Earle, English artist d. 1838
  • July 15 – Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps, American educator, British science writer d. 1884
  • June 29 – Josef Ressel, German-Bohemian inventor d. 1857
  • January 3 – Lucretia Mott, American womens rights activist, abolitionist d. 1880
  • June 6 – Edward C. Delavan, American temperance movement leader d. 1871
  • Approximate date – Sarah Booth, English actress d. 1867


                                     

3. Deaths

  • March 26 – John Mudge, English physician, inventor b. 1721
  • March 4 – Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthievre, French admiral b. 1725
  • February 1 – William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, British statesman b. 1717
  • January 26 – Francesco Guardi, Italian painter b. 1712
  • Yechezkel Landau, Polish rabbi, Talmudist b. 1713
  • January 21 – King Louis XVI of France executed b. 1754
  • April 15 – Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian Jesuit missionary, geographer b. 1718
  • John Michell, English scientist b. 1724
  • March 20 – William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, Scottish judge, politician b. 1705
  • March 2 – Carl Gustaf Pilo, Swedish-born artist
  • April 13 – Princess Marie Victoire dArenberg, Margravine of Baden-Baden as consort of Augustus George b. 1714
  • April 29
  • February 6 – Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright b. 1707
  • May 7 – Pietro Nardini, Italian composer b. 1722
  • May 26 – Eliza Lucas, American agronomist b. 1722
  • July 13 – Jean-Paul Marat, Swiss-born French Revolutionary leader assassinated b. 1743
  • May 18 – Timur Shah Durrani, ruler of the Durrani Empire b. 1748
  • August 22
  • June 26 – Gilbert White, English ornithologist b. 1720
  • July 17 – Charlotte Corday, French assassin of Jean-Paul Marat executed b. 1768
  • July 23 – Roger Sherman, American lawyer, signer of the Declaration of Independence b. 1721
  • John Thomas, Dean of Westminster; Bishop of Rochester b. 1712
  • May 20 – Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist b. 1720
  • July 26 – Alessandro Besozzi, Italian composer b. 1702
  • May 3 – Martin Gerbert, German theologian, historian b. 1720
  • Louis de Noailles, French peer and Marshal of France b. 1713
  • October 7
  • Antoine Joseph Gorsas, French publicist, politician b. 1752
  • September 20 – Fletcher Christian, English sailor b. 1764
  • August 28 – Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine, French general executed b. 1740
  • Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire, English politician b. 1718
  • September 17 – George Handley, American politician b. 1752
  • Claude Fauchet, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1754
  • October 9 – Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, French Jesuit missionary b. 1718
  • Armand Gensonne, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1758
  • October 8 – John Hancock, American businessman and patriot, signer of the Declaration of Independence b. 1737
  • Jacques Pierre Brissot, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1754
  • October 16 – Marie-Antoinette, Queen Consort of France executed b. 1755
  • Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1744
  • October 31
  • Madame du Barry, French courtesan executed b. 1743
  • November 14 – Caterina Dolfin, Italian Venetian poet b. 1736
  • December 7 – Joseph Bara, French Revolution child-hero b. 1780
  • November 6 – Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, French noble, revolutionary leader executed b. 1747
  • November 24 – Clement Charles François de Laverdy, French statesman executed b. 1723
  • November 12 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, French astronomer b. 1736
  • November 10 – Jean-Marie Roland, vicomte de la Platiere, French revolutionary leader suicide b. 1734
  • Etienne Claviere, French financier, politician suicide b. 1735
  • November 8 – Madame Roland, French Revolutionary hostess executed b. 1754
  • December 4 – Armand de Kersaint, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1742
  • November 29 – Antoine Barnave, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1761
  • December 5 – Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Etienne French revolutionary leader executed b. 1743
  • November 3 – Olympe de Gouges, French playwright executed b. 1748
  • December 8
  • December 6 – Sir John Dashwood-King, 3rd Baronet, English country gentleman b. 1716
  • date unknown – Im Yunjidang, Korean scholar, writer and neo-Confucian philosopher b. 1721
                                     
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