ⓘ Fortifications of Gibraltar
The fortifications of Gibraltar have made the Rock of Gibraltar and its environs "probably the most fought over and most densely fortified place in Europe, and probably, therefore, in the world", as Field Marshal Sir John Chapple has put it. The Gibraltar peninsula, located at the far southern end of Iberia, has great strategic importance as a result of its position by the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean. It has repeatedly been contested between European and North African powers and has endured fourteen sieges since it was first settled in the 11th century. The peninsulas occupants – Moors, Spanish, and British – have built successive layers of fortifications and defences including walls, bastions, casemates, gun batteries, magazines, tunnels and galleries. At their peak in 1865, the fortifications housed around 681 guns mounted in 110 batteries and positions, guarding all land and sea approaches to Gibraltar. The fortifications continued to be in military use until as late as the 1970s and by the time tunnelling ceased in the late 1960s, over 34 miles of galleries had been dug in an area of only 2.6 square miles.
Gibraltars fortifications grouped in three main areas. Dense fortifications in the area, where historically Gibraltar under the most threat on the Northern tip of the Peninsula, on the Northern front, in front of the isthmus to Spain. Another group of fortifications guarding the city and harbour, called the West side. The southern part of the town protected the southern land front. There are several fortifications on the East side, as the rock on the rock Gibraltar is a virtually impassable obstacle. Further fortifications is occupied by the plateau of Windmill hill and part of Europe, on the southern end of the Peninsula. Observation posts and batteries on the tops of the cliffs provide 360° views of the Strait and far in Spain. Although Gibraltar is now largely demilitarized, many fortifications remained intact, and some, such as the great siege tunnels and the wall of Charles V – where many of Gibraltars famous "monkey" live – have become tourist attractions.
- on the rock to the east of the dockyard which records the battery s name. Fa Finlayson 2006 The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068 - 1945. Osprey Publishing
- similarly armed Prince of Wales Battery and the larger Queen Victoria s Battery. Fa Finlayson 2006 The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068 - 1945. Osprey Publishing
- extensive building programme of new fortifications for Gibraltar as set out in a report by a commission that had examined the state of the Rock s defences in
- The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068 - 1945. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978 - 1 - 84603 - 016 - 1. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 1859 Map of the Fortifications of Gibraltar
- plaque on the wall near this gate Fa Finlayson 2006 The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068 - 1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 36 37. ISBN 978 - 1 - 84603 - 016 - 1
- There have been fourteen recorded sieges of Gibraltar Although the peninsula of Gibraltar is only 6 kilometres 3.7 mi long and 1 kilometre 0.62 mi
- British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar They are located in the Charles V Wall, one of the 16th century fortifications of Gibraltar The gates are clustered
- 2006 The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068 - 1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978 - 1 - 84603 - 016 - 1. Retrieved 30 March 2013. Gibraltar Heritage Trust
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