ⓘ Passive fluency


ⓘ Passive fluency

Passive fluency is where a person can fluently read and audibly understand a language whilst not having the ability to fluently speak or write the language. Passive fluency is often brought about by being raised in one language and being schooled in another language.

People who are passively fluent in a language are often latent speakers who were raised in an environment where the language was spoken but did not become native speakers.


1. Language Attitudes regarding "Passive Bilinguals"

A more common term for this phenomenon is passive bilingualism. Grosjean argues that there has been a monolingual bias regarding who is considered a bilingual, where people who do not have equal competence in all their languages are judges not speaking properly. Balanced bilinguals are, in fact, very rare, and the fluency of a bilingual in his/ her languages is domain- specific: it depends on what they need the languages for. This means that speakers may not admit to their fluency in their passive language, despite the fact that there are social extralinguistic factors underlying their different competencies.


2. A Need for Passive Bilinguals in Basque Country

Karlos Cid Abasolo discusses that passive bilingualism would be a minimum requirement for the co- official status of Basque and Spanish to become a working reality. As there are currently many monolingual Spanish speakers, and no monolingual Basque speakers, there is not yet a situation where an individual fluent in Basque could speak in his/ her mother tongue, regardless of the domain, circumstance or interlocutor.

  • reduced contact between Samogitian speakers, and therefore the level of fluency of those speakers. There are attempts by the Samogitian Cultural Society
  • Advisory Section at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. His fluency in German helped him to interrogate German scientists, including rocket
  • medieval period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency and syntax. Grammar and vocabulary, however, were often influenced by an
  • group of schools. The school s programs are designed to spur full native fluency in Okanagan before the age of 10. The school does this by offering classes
  • fluency tasks. Fluency tasks show substantial activation of the left dorsolateral frontal cortex. Phonemic verbal fluency initial letter fluency activates
  • in 488 to invade Italy, then held by Odoacer. Procopius remarks on his fluency in Gothic, but another contemporary writer, Jordanes, claims that he hailed
  • form of abstraction divided the critics: some praised the immediacy and fluency of the creation, while others derided the random effects. In 2016, Pollock s
  • infinitive, when used, is principally used as noun e.g. λέγειν speaking, fluency eloquence γράφειν writing είναι being etc. deriving directly
  • forms. This makes TBLT especially popular for developing target language fluency and student confidence. As such, TBLT can be considered a branch of communicative

Users also searched:

functional bilingualism, how to overcome receptive bilingualism, passive knowledge of the other official language,