ⓘ King Kong (2005 film)
King Kong is a 2005 epic monster adventure film co-written, produced, and directed by Peter Jackson. A second remake of the 1933 film of the same title, the film stars Naomi Watts, Jack Black, Adrien Brody, and, through motion capture, Andy Serkis as the title character. Set in 1933, it follows the story of an ambitious filmmaker who coerces his cast and hired ship crew to travel to the mysterious Skull Island. There, they encounter bizarre creatures living on the island as well as a legendary giant gorilla known as Kong, whom they capture and take to New York City.
Filming for King Kong took place in New Zealand from September 2004 to March 2005. The projects budget climbed from an initial $150 million to a then-record-breaking $207 million. It was released on December 14, 2005 in Germany and the United States, and made an opening of $50.1 million. While it performed lower than expected, King Kong made domestic and worldwide grosses that eventually added up to $562 million, becoming the fourth-highest-grossing film in Universal Pictures history at the time and the fifth-highest-grossing film of 2005. It also generated $100 million in DVD sales upon its home video release.
The film garnered positive reviews from critics and appeared on several top ten lists for 2005. It was praised for its special effects, performances, sense of spectacle and comparison to the 1933 original, while some criticised its 3-hour run time. It won three Academy Awards: Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing and Best Visual Effects. A tie-in video game was released alongside the film, which also became a commercial success.
In 1933, during the Great Depression, New York City vaudeville actress Ann Darrow is hired by financially troubled filmmaker Carl Denham to star in a film alongside actor Bruce Baxter. Ann learns her favorite playwright, Jack Driscoll, is the screenwriter. Filming takes place on a tramp steamer, the SS Venture, under the command of Captain Englehorn, and under Carls pretense that it will be sailing to Singapore. In truth, Carl intends to sail to and film the mysterious Skull Island. Captain Englehorn has second thoughts about the voyage, prompted by his crews speculation of trouble ahead. On the voyage, Ann and Jack fall in love. Deep in the southern waters, the Venture receives a radio message informing Englehorn there is a warrant for Carls arrest due to his defiance of the studios orders to cease production. The message instructs Englehorn to divert to Rangoon, but the ship becomes lost in fog and runs aground on the rocky shore of Skull Island. Carl and his crew explore the island and are attacked by natives. Ann screams when she sees one of Carls assistants get killed, and a loud roar is heard beyond a wall. After this, the tribes matriarch targets Ann, muttering the word "Kong". Englehorn intervenes and rescues the film crew, but as they make efforts to leave the waters, a native sneaks onto the ship and kidnaps Ann. The natives offer Ann as a sacrifice to Kong, a 25 feet 7.6 m tall gorilla. Jack notices Anns disappearance, and the crew returns to the island, but are too late as Kong flees with Ann into the jungle. Carl manages to catch a glimpse of Kong, and becomes more determined to capture him on film.
Though initially terrified of her captor, Ann wins Kong over with her juggling and dancing stage skills, and begins to grasp Kongs intelligence and capacity for emotion. Englehorn organizes a rescue party, led by his first mate Hayes and Jack, and accompanied by the film crew. The party encounters the Pachyrhinosaurus-like Ferructus cerastes which Hayes is able to gun down. The party is then caught in the middle of a pack of Utahraptor-like Venatosaurus saevidicus and the herd of Brontosaurus they are hunting, with several killed in the resulting stampede. After this, Baxter leaves the group to return to the ship. The rest of the party continues, as they cross a swamp the group is attacked by a Piranhodon titanus, which kills three men. The remaining members of the party continue through the jungle when Kong attacks, making them fall into a ravine resulting in Hayes death and Carl losing his camera and reels. Kong returns to Ann and saves her from three Vastatosaurus rex, before taking her to his lair in the mountains. The remaining rescue party are attacked by giant insects in the ravine, and rescued by a returning Baxter, along with Englehorn. As Jack continues searching for Ann, Carl decides to capture Kong. Jack goes to Kongs lair, inadvertently waking him and provoking a swarm of flying Terapusmordax, large bat-like creatures. As Kong fights the swarm, Ann and Jack escape. They arrive at the wall with Kong pursuing them, and Ann becomes distraught by what Carl plans to do. Kong bursts through the gate to get Ann back, killing several sailors, but is subdued when Carl knocks him out with chloroform.
In New York City, Carl presents Kong, the Eighth Wonder of the World on Broadway, starring Baxter and an imprisoned Kong. Ann is played by an anonymous chorus girl, as she refused to take part in the performance. Agitated by the flashing of the cameras, Kong breaks free from his chrome-steel chains and wrecks the theater. He chases Jack out into the metropolitan streets and begins a search for Ann. Kong knocks Jack out, then encounters Ann again, who is able to calm him. Kong and Ann share a moment on a frozen pond in Central Park until the U.S. Army attacks. Kong climbs with Ann onto the top of the Empire State Building, where he fights off six F8C-5 Helldiver Navy planes. Kong is mortally wounded by the planes gunfire, and gazes at Ann for the last time before dying and falling from the building. As Ann is reunited with Jack, civilians, policemen, and soldiers gather around Kongs corpse. Carl makes his way through the crowd, takes one last long look at Kong and says, "It wasnt the airplanes. It was Beauty killed the Beast."
In addition, director Jackson with makeup artist Rick Baker as the pilot and gunner on the airplane that kills the title character, his children appear as New York children, The Lord of the Rings co-producer Rick Porras appears as a gunner in an airplane, and Bob Burns and his wife appear as New York bystanders. Frequent Jackson collaborator Howard Shore makes a cameo appearance as the conductor of the New York theater from where Kong escapes.
Watts, Black, and Brody were the first choices for their respective roles with no other actors considered. In preparation for her role, Watts met with the original Ann Darrow, Fay Wray. Jackson wanted Wray to make a cameo appearance and say the final line of dialogue, but she died during pre-production at 96 years old. Black was cast as Carl Denham based on his performance in the 2000 film High Fidelity, which had impressed Jackson. For inspiration, Black studied P. T. Barnum and Orson Welles. "I didnt study move for move. It was just to capture the spirit. Very reckless guy. I had tapes of him drunk off his ass." The native extras on Skull Island were portrayed by a mix of Asian, African, Maori and Polynesian actors sprayed with dark makeup to achieve a consistent pigmentation.
3.1. Production Earlier attempts and 1990s
Peter Jackson was nine years old when he first saw the 1933 film, and was in tears in front of the TV when Kong slipped off the Empire State Building. At age 12, he attempted to recreate the film using his parents Super 8 mm film camera and a model of Kong made of wire and rubber with his mothers fur coat for the hair, but eventually gave up on the project. King Kong eventually became his favorite film and was the primary inspiration for his decision to become a filmmaker as a teenager. He read books about the making of King Kong and collected memorabilia, as well as articles from Famous Monsters of Filmland. Jackson paid tribute to the 1933 film by including Skull Island as the origin of the zombie plague in his 1992 film Braindead.
During the filming of Jacksons 1996 film The Frighteners, Universal Pictures was impressed with Jacksons dailies and early visual effects footage. The studio was adamant to work with Jackson on his next project and, in late 1995, offered him the chance to direct a remake of the 1954 film Creature from the Black Lagoon. He turned down the offer, but Universal became aware of Jacksons obsession with King Kong and subsequently offered him the opportunity to direct that remake. The studio did not have to worry of lawsuits concerning the film rights from RKO Pictures the studio behind the 1933 film because the King Kong character is held in the public domain. Jackson initially turned down the King Kong offer, but he "quickly became disturbed by the fact that someone else would take it over," Jackson continued, "and make it into a terrible film; that haunted me and I eventually said yes to Universal."
At the same time, Jackson was working with Harvey Weinstein and Miramax Films to purchase the film rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, while 20th Century Fox was trying to hire him for the 2001 remake of Planet of the Apes. Jackson turned down Planet of the Apes and because Weinstein was taking longer than expected to buy The Lord of the Rings rights, Jackson decided to move forward on King Kong. Weinstein was furious, and, as a result, Jackson proposed a deal between Universal and Miramax that the two studios would equally finance King Kong with Jacksons production company Wingnut Films. Universal would receive distribution rights in the United States, while Miramax would cover foreign territories. Jackson was also warranted the right of final cut privilege, a percentage of the gross profits, as well as artistic control; Universal allowed all filming and visual effects to be handled entirely in New Zealand. The deal was settled in April 1996, and Jackson, along with wife Fran Walsh, began working on the King Kong script. In the original draft, Ann was the daughter of famed English archaeologist Lord Linwood Darrow exploring ancient ruins in Sumatra. They would come into conflict with Denham during his filming, and they would uncover a hidden Kong statue and the map of Skull Island. This would indicate that the island natives were the last remnants of a cult religion that had once thrived on Asias mainland. Instead of a playwright, Jack was the first mate and an ex-World War I fighter pilot still struggling with the loss of his best friend, who had been killed in battle during a World War I prologue. The camera-man Herb is the only supporting character in the original draft who made it to the final version. The fight between Kong and the three V. rex also changed from the original draft. In the draft, Ann is actually caught in the V. rex s jaws, where she becomes wedged, and slashed by the teeth; after the fight, Kong gets her out but she is suffering from a fever, from which she then recovers.
Universal approved of the script with Robert Zemeckis as executive producer, and pre-production for King Kong started. The plan was to begin filming sometime in 1997 for a summer 1998 release date. Weta Digital and Weta Workshop, under the supervision of Richard Taylor and Christian Rivers, began work on early visual effects tests, specifically the complex task of building a CGI version of New York City circa 1933. Jackson and Walsh progressed with a second draft script, sets were being designed and location scouting commenced in Sumatra and New Zealand. In late 1996, Jackson flew to production of the 1997 film Titanic in Mexico to discuss the part of Ann Darrow with Kate Winslet, with whom he previously worked with on his 1994 film Heavenly Creatures. Minnie Driver was also being reportedly considered. Jacksons choices for Jack Driscoll and Carl Denham included George Clooney and Robert De Niro. However, development for King Kong was stalled in January 1997 when Universal became concerned over the upcoming release of the 1998 film Godzilla, as well as other ape-related remakes with the 1998 film Mighty Joe Young and the 2001 film Planet of the Apes. Universal abandoned King Kong in February 1997 after Weta Workshop and Weta Digital had already designed six months worth of pre-production. Jackson then decided to start work on The Lord of the Rings film series.
3.2. Production Revival of the project
With the financial and critical success of the 2001 film The Fellowship of the Ring and the 2002 film The Two Towers, Universal approached Jackson in early 2003, during the post-production of The Return of the King, concerning his interest in restarting development on King Kong. In March 2003, Universal set a target December 2005 release date and Jackson and Walsh brought The Lord of the Rings co-writer Philippa Boyens on to help rewrite their 1996 script. Jackson offered New Line Cinema the opportunity to co-finance with Universal, but they declined. Universal and Jackson originally projected a $150 million budget, which eventually rose to $175 million. Jackson made a deal with Universal whereby he would be paid a $20 million salary against 20% of the box office gross for directing, producing and co-writing. He shared that fee with co-writers Walsh which also covered her producing credit and Boyens. However, if King Kong were to go over its $175 million budget, the penalties would be covered by Jackson.
Immediately after the completion of The Return of the King, Weta Workshop and Weta Digital, supervised by Taylor, Rivers, and Joe Lettieri, started pre-production on King Kong. Jackson brought back most of the crew he had on The Lord of the Rings series, including cinematographer Andrew Lesnie, production designer Grant Major, art directors Simon Bright and Dan Hennah, conceptual designer Alan Lee, and editor Jamie Selkirk. Jackson, Walsh and Boyens began to write a new script in late October 2003. Jackson acknowledged that he was highly unsatisfied with the original 1996 script. "That was actually just Fran and Peter very hurriedly getting something down on paper", Boyens explained. "It was more one of many possible ways the story could go." The writers chose to base the new screenplay on the 1933 film rather than the 1996 script. They also included scenes from James Ashmore Creelmans screenplay that were either abandoned or omitted during production of the original film. In the scene where Kong shakes the surviving sailors pursuing Ann and himself from a log into the ravine, for example, directors Merian Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack originally intended to depict giant spiders emerging from the rock to devour their bodies. This was cut from the original release print, and remains known to Kong fans only via a rare still that appeared in Famous Monsters of Filmland. Jackson included this scene and elaborated upon it. Jackson, Walsh and Boyens also cited Delos W. Lovelaces 1932 novelization of King Kong as inspiration, which included the character Lumpy Andy Serkis. To make the relationship between Ann Darrow and Kong plausible, the writers studied hours of gorilla footage. Jackson also optioned Early Havoc, a memoir written by vaudeville performer June Havoc to help Walsh and Boyens flesh out Ann Darrows characterization. Carl Denham was intentionally modeled after and inspired by Orson Welles. Their new draft was finished in February 2004.
3.3. Production Filming
Principal photography started on September 6, 2004 at Camperdown Studios in Miramar, New Zealand. Camperdown housed the native village and the Great Wall, while the streets of New York City were constructed on its backlot and at Gracefield in Lower Hutt, New Zealand. The majority of the SS Venture scenes were shot aboard a full-scale deck constructed in the parking lot at Camperdown Studio and then were backed with a green screen, with the ocean digitally added in post. Scenes set in the Broadway theater from which King Kong makes his escape were filmed in Wellingtons Opera House and at the Auckland Civic Theatre. Filming also took place at Stone Street Studios, where a new sound stage was constructed to accommodate one of the sets. Over the course of filming the budget went from $175 million to $273 million over additional visual effects work needed, and Jackson extending the films running time by thirty minutes. Jackson covered the $32 million surplus himself and finished filming in March 2005.
The films budget climbed from an initial US$150 million to a then-record-breaking $273 million and received a subsidy of $34 million from New Zealand, making it at one point the most expensive film yet made. Universal only agreed to such an outlay after seeing a screening of the unfinished film, to which executives responded enthusiastically. Marketing and promotion costs were an estimated $60 million. The films length also grew; originally set to be 135 minutes, it soon grew to 200, prompting Universal executives to fly to New Zealand to view a rough cut, but they liked it so their concerns were addressed.
Other difficulties included Peter Jacksons decision to change composers from Howard Shore to James Newton Howard seven weeks before the film opened.
3.4. Production Visual effects
Jackson saw King Kong as opportunity for technical innovations in motion capture, commissioning Christian Rivers of Weta Digital to supervise all aspects of Kongs performance. Jackson decided early on that he did not want Kong to behave like a human, and so he and his team studied hours of gorilla footage. Serkis was cast in the title role in April 2003 and prepared himself by working with gorillas at the London Zoo. He then traveled to Rwanda, observing the actions and behaviors of gorillas in the wild. Rivers explained that the detailed facial performance capture with Serkis was accomplished because of the similarities between human and gorilla faces. "Gorillas have such a similar looking set of eyes and brows, you can look at those expressions and transpose your own interpretation onto them." Photos of silverback gorillas were also superimposed on Kongs image in the early stages of animation. Serkis had to go through two hours of motion capture makeup every day, having 135 small markers attached to different spots on his face. Following principal photography, Serkis had to spend an additional two months on a motion capture stage, miming Kongs movements for the films digital animators.
Apart from Kong, Skull Island is inhabited by dinosaurs and other large fauna. Inspired by Dougal Dixons works, the designers imagined what 65 million years or more of isolated evolution might have done to dinosaurs and the other creatures.
King Kong: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was composed by James Newton Howard, who composed The Sixth Sense, Dinosaur, Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet. Originally, Howard Shore, who worked with Peter Jackson on The Lord of the Rings, was to compose the films score. Shore completed and recorded several cues before he and Jackson parted ways. Shores appearance as the conductor in the New York theatre from which Kong escapes remained in the film.
James Newton Howards score was later nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score.
The marketing campaign started in full swing on June 27, 2005, when the teaser trailer made its debut, first online at the official Volkswagen website at 8:45 p.m. EDT, then 8:55 p.m. EDT across media outlets owned by NBC Universal the parent of Universal Studios, including NBC, Bravo!, CNBC, and MSNBC. That trailer appeared in theatres attached to War of the Worlds, which opened on June 29.
Jackson also regularly published a series of Production Diaries, which chronicled the films production. The diaries started shortly after the DVD release of The Return of the King as a way to give Jacksons The Lord of the Rings fans a glimpse of his next project. These diaries are edited into broadband-friendly installments of three or four minutes each. They consist of features that would normally be seen in a making-of documentary: a tour of the set, a roving camera introducing key players behind the scene, a peek inside the sound booth during last-minute dubbing, or Andy Serkis doing his ape movements in a motion capture studio.
A novelization of the film and a prequel novel entitled King Kong: The Island of the Skull were also written. A multi-platform video game, entitled Peter Jacksons King Kong, was released, which featured an alternate ending. There was also a hardback book entitled The World of Kong: A Natural History of Skull Island, featuring artwork from Weta Workshop to describe the films fictional wildlife.
Jackson has expressed his desire to remaster the film in 3-D at some point in the future. Jackson was also seen shooting with a 3-D camera at times during the shoot of King Kong.
6.1. Reception Box office
In North America, King Kong grossed $9.755.745 during its Wednesday opening and $50.130.145 over its first weekend for a five-day total of $66.1 million. Some analysts considered these initial numbers disappointing, saying that studio executives had been expecting more. The film went on to gross $218.080.025 in the North American market and ended up in the top five highest grossing films of the year there. The film grossed an additional $332.437.332 at the box office in other regions for a worldwide total of $550.517.357, which not only ranked it in the top five highest-grossing films of 2005 worldwide, but also helped the film bring back more than two and a half times its production budget.
During its home video release, King Kong sold over $100 million worth of DVDs in the largest six-day performance in Universal Studios history. King Kong sold more than 7.6 million DVDs, accumulating nearly $194 million worth of sales numbers in the North American market alone. As of June 25, 2006, King Kong has generated almost $38 million from DVD rental gross. In February 2006, TNT/TBS and ABC paid Universal Studios $26.5 million for the television rights to the film.
6.2. Reception Critical response
King Kong received positive reviews from critics. On aggregate review site Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 84% based on 266 reviews, with an average rating of 7.69/10. The sites critical consensus reads, "Featuring state-of-the-art special effects, terrific performances, and a majestic sense of spectacle, Peter Jacksons remake of King Kong is a potent epic thats faithful to the spirit of the 1933 original." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 81 out of 100, based on 39 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A–" on an A+-to-F scale.
It was placed on the Top Ten lists of several critics, with Roger Ebert giving it four stars, and listed it as 2005s eighth best film. The film received four Academy Award nominations, for Visual Effects, Sound Mixing, Sound Editing, and Production Design, winning all but the last. Entertainment Weekly called the depiction of Kong the most convincing computer-generated character in film in 2005. Some criticized the film for retaining racist stereotypes that had been present in the 1933 film, though it was not suggested that Jackson had done this intentionally. King Kong ranks 450th on Empire magazines 2008 list of the 500 Greatest Movies of All Time. The Guardian reviewer Peter Bradshaw said that it "certainly equals, and even exceeds, anything Jackson did in Lord of the Rings." However, Charlie Brooker, also of The Guardian, gave a negative review in which he describes the film as "sixteen times more overblown and histrionic than necessary".
7. Cinematic and literary allusions
- When Driscoll is searching for a place to sleep in the animal storage hold, a box behind him reads Sumatran Rat Monkey - Beware the bite! This is a reference to the creature that causes mayhem in Jacksons 1992 film Braindead. In that film, the rat monkey is described as being found only on Skull Island.
- Jimmy reads part of Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness while en route to Skull Island, at one point comparing their journey to that of the novella.
- Jack Black and critics have noted Carl Denhams similarity to Orson Welles.
7.1. Cinematic and literary allusions References to original 1933 King Kong
- Fay Wray, the original Ann Darrow, was asked by Jackson to appear in a brief cameo role in which she would utter the films final line: "It was beauty killed the beast." At first, she flatly refused, but then seemed to consider the possibility. However, she died shortly after her meeting with Jackson. As in the original film, the line ultimately went to the character of Carl Denham.
- An ad for Universal is visible while Kong is tearing up Times Square. In the 1933 film, an ad for Columbia Pictures appeared in the same spot, and the production designers replicated it, but Columbia asked for a large amount of money for its use, so effects artists replaced it.
- Early in this film, Denham shoots a scene for his film in which Ann, in-character, proclaims shes never been on a ship before, and Bruce Baxter improvises lines proclaiming annoyance. The dialogue they exchange is taken verbatim from early scenes between Ann and Jack Driscoll in the 1933 film. Ironically, in this film, Jack Driscoll expresses disapproval of such words toward Ann.
- After the crew captures Kong on the beach, Denham speaks a line from the 1933 film: The whole world will pay to see this! Were millionaires, boys! Ill share it with all of you. In a few months, his name will be up in lights on Broadway! KONG, THE EIGHTH WONDER OF THE WORLD!
- Kongs New York stage appearance looks very much like a re-enactment of the 1933 films sacrifice scene, including the posts the beauty is tied to and the nearly identical performance and costumes of the dancers. In addition, the music played by the orchestra during that scene is Max Steiners original score for the 1933 film.
- The battle between Kong and the final V. rex is almost move-for-move like the last half of the fight between Kong and the T. rex in the 1933 film, right down to Kong playing with the dinosaurs broken jaw and then standing, beating his chest and roaring victoriously.
- When Denham is considering who to play the part before meeting Ann, he suggests "Fay", but his assistant Preston replies, "Shes doing a picture with RKO." Music from the 1933 film is heard, and Denham mutters, "Cooper, huh? I might have known." Fay Wray starred in the 1933 film, which was directed by Merian C. Cooper and released by RKO. At the time she was performing in another Cooper/Schoedsack production, The Most Dangerous Game with Robert Armstrong.
- In the 1933 film, Cooper made up an "Arabian proverb" about "beauty and beast". The 2005 remake repeats the fake proverb.
8. Home media
King Kong was released on DVD on March 28, 2006 in the United States and Canada. The three versions that came out are a single disc full screen, a single disc widescreen, and a two-disc Widescreen Special Edition.
A three-disc Deluxe Extended Edition was released on November 14, 2006 in the U.S., and on November 3 in Australia. Twelve minutes were reinserted into the film, and an additional forty minutes included with the rest of the special features. The film was spread onto the first two discs with commentary by Peter Jackson and Philippa Boyens, and some featurettes on discs one and two, whilst the main special features are on disc three. Another set was released, including a WETA figurine of a bullet-ridden Kong scaling the Empire State Building, roaring at the Navy with Ann in hand. The extended film amounts to 202 total minutes.
A special HD DVD version of King Kong was part of a promotional pack for the release of the external HD DVD Drive for the Xbox 360. The pack contained the HD DVD drive, the Universal Media Remote and King Kong on HD DVD. It was also available separately as a standard HD DVD. The films theatrical and extended cuts were released together on Blu-ray Disc on January 20, 2009. A re-release of the Blu-Ray with a new bonus disc containing nearly all of the extras from the 2-disc Special Edition DVD, the Deluxe Extended Edition 3-disc DVD, and the "Peter Jacksons Production Diaries" 2-disc DVD titled the "Ultimate Edition" was released on February 7, 2017. An Ultra HD Blu-ray followed in July 2017.
9. Skull Island: Reign of Kong
The Universal Orlando Resort location Islands of Adventure features an attraction called "Skull Island: Reign of Kong" which is based on Peter Jacksons remake. While the King Kong part of the Universal Studios Hollywood resort was destroyed by massive fire, a short 3D version of the film was eventually created in 2010. This was King Kong: 360 3-D, which is another attraction based on Peter Jacksons remake.
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