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ⓘ Non-vascular plant




Non-vascular plant
                                     

ⓘ Non-vascular plant

Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem. Although non-vascular plants lack these particular tissues, many possess simpler tissues that are specialized for internal transport of water.

Non-vascular plants include two distantly related groups:

  • Bryophytes, an informal group that is now treated as three separate land plant Divisions, namely Bryophyta mosses, Marchantiophyta liverworts, and Anthocerotophyta hornworts. In all bryophytes, the primary plants are the haploid gametophytes, with the only diploid portion being the attached sporophyte, consisting of a stalk and sporangium. Because these plants lack lignified water-conducting tissues, they cant become as tall as most vascular plants.
  • Algae - especially the green algae. Recent studies have demonstrated that the algae consist of several unrelated groups. It turns out that the common features of living in water and photosynthesis were misleading as indicators of close relationship. Only those groups of algae included in the Viridiplantae are still considered relatives of land plants.

These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores. Non-vascular plants are often among the first species to move into new and inhospitable territories, along with prokaryotes and protists, and thus function as pioneer species.

Non-vascular plants do not have a wide variety of specialized tissue types. Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem. Consequently, phyllids are unable to control the rate of water loss from their tissues and are said to be poikilohydric. Some liverworts, such as Marchantia have a cuticle and the sporophytes of mosses have both cuticles and stomata, which were important in the evolution of land plants.

All land plants have a life cycle with an alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte, but in all non-vascular land plants the gametophyte generation is dominant. In these plants, the sporophytes grow from and are dependent on gametophytes for taking in water and mineral nutrients and for provision of photosynthate, the products of photosynthesis.

                                     
  • Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non - vascular land plants embryophytes the liverworts, hornworts and mosses. They are
  • favorable. Once the bacteria enters the plant it will invade the vascular tissue and cause symptoms by producing plant cell wall degrading enzymes, like pectinases
  • hold water in the canopy and decrease water input to the soil. Some non - vascular epiphytes such as lichens and mosses are well known for their ability
  • comprises a vast assemblage of plant species estimated to over 15, 500 vascular plants Malaysia boasts 8, 019 species of seed plants 19 species of Gymnosperms
  • Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients but not energy, which they derive from photosynthesis from trapping and consuming
  • example, no thallus has vascular tissue. In exceptional cases such as the Lemnoideae, where the structure of a vascular plant is in fact thallus - like
  • Embryophyta, comprising the bryophytes and vascular plants However, the clade Viridiplantae or green plants includes some other groups of photosynthetic
  • been predictable on the basis of examination of the separate parts. A vascular plant begins from a single celled zygote, formed by fertilisation of an egg
  • Phloem pronunciation: ˈfloʊ.əm is the living tissue in vascular plants that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and

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