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ⓘ International crisis




International crisis
                                     

ⓘ International crisis

The term international crisis is widespread term without a single common definition. To some, it involves "a sequence of interactions between the governments of two or more sovereign states in severe conflict, short of actual war, but involving the perception of a dangerously high probability of war".

                                     

1. Types

Lebow gives a breakdown of three types of international crises:

  • Brinkmanship. Intentionally forcing a crisis to get the other side to back down. The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 is a well-known example of brinkmanship.
  • Justification of Hostilities. One of the nations decides, before the crisis starts, to go to war and constructs a crisis to justify it. The pattern of justification is almost always the same: Rouse public opinion, make impossible demands, try to legitimize the demands, deny your real intentions then employ the rejection of the demands as a reason for war. A recent example, commonly employed by critics of George W. Bush, is the Iraq disarmament crisis, which precipitated the Iraq War.
  • Spinoff Crisis. The nations are involved in a war or crisis with another nation or nations and this precipitates another crisis, e.g. the Lusitania incident in 1915.

With the exception of a justification of hostilities, the study of international crises assumes that neither side actually wants to go to war, but must be visibly prepared to do so. In the words of Groucho Marx, "Always be sincere, even if you dont mean it".

                                     

2. Strategies

Georges book presents an overview of the process and conflicting goals of crisis management as well as many examples. He discusses a number of strategies, including:

Offensive strategies

  • limited and reversible response
  • blackmail
  • controlled pressure
  • fait accompli
  • attrition

Defensive strategies

  • tit-for-tat
  • Buying time strategy
  • test of capabilities
  • limited escalation
  • "drawing a line"
  • Conveying commitment and resolve to avoid miscalculation by the adversary
  • coercion
                                     

3. List of defused crises

International crises tend to result in war, almost by definition; they are then remembered best not as crises but as causes of wars. For information on international crises that resulted immediately in war, see List of wars. Given the above, some of the crises that are best-known as crises were defused. The following crises did not immediately provoke large-scale violence, but set of anger in countries:

  • 2001 Indian Parliament attack 2001
  • November 2008 Mumbai attacks 2008
  • Venezuelan crisis of 1895, between Venezuela and the United Kingdom
  • Dutch–Venezuelan crisis of 1908, between Venezuela and the Netherlands
  • Beagle conflict 1978
  • Caldas crisis 1987
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
  • Damansky Island Crisis 1969
  • War in sight crisis 1875
  • Iran crisis 1946–1947
  • Pueblo incident 1968
  • Agadir Crisis 1911
  • Korean crisis 2013
  • Sudetenland Crisis 1938
  • Anschluss 1938
  • May Crisis 1938
  • 1973 Chilean coup
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • Coronavirus 2020
  • Able Archer 83 1983
  • Bosnian crisis 1908–1909
  • Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03, between Venezuela and Britain, Germany and Italy
  • Anglo-Portuguese Crisis 1889–1890
  • September 11 attacks 2001
  • Axe Murder Incident 1976
  • Berlin Blockade 1948–1949
  • Åland crisis 1916–1920
  • Iran hostage crisis 1979
  • First Moroccan Crisis 1904–1906
  • Fashoda Incident 1898–1899


                                     

4. Ongoing crises

  • Syrian Civil War
  • Global warming
  • Terrorism
  • 2017–18 Qatar diplomatic crisis 2017-ongoing
  • Territorial disputes in the South China Sea
  • Poverty
  • Ukrainian crisis
  • World hunger
  • Israeli–Palestinian conflict
  • Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
  • Crisis in Venezuela
  • Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict
  • Korean conflict
  • North Korea and weapons of mass destruction
                                     
  • The Russian financial crisis also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu hit Russia on 17 August 1998. It resulted in the Russian government and the
  • Bubblegum Crisis Japanese: バブルガムクライシス, Hepburn: Baburugamu Kuraishisu is a 1987 to 1991 cyberpunk original video animation OVA series produced by Youmex
  • and more challenging part of the entire economic crisis this period includes the 2011 14 international bailout to Portugal and was marked by an intense
  • forces successfully occupied the Port of Beirut and Beirut International Airport. With the crisis over, the United States withdrew. In July 1958, Lebanon
  • crisis was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007 08. Widely known in the country as The Crisis Greek:
  • European debt crisis often also referred to as the eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis is a multi - year debt crisis that has been taking
  • International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military
  • The 2010 11 Ivorian crisis was a political crisis in Ivory Coast which began after Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, was proclaimed
  • The Mexican peso crisis was a currency crisis sparked by the Mexican government s sudden devaluation of the peso against the U.S. dollar in December 1994
  • Legitimation crisis refers to a decline in the confidence of administrative functions, institutions, or leadership. The term was first introduced in 1973

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