ⓘ Cultural icon

Cultural icon

ⓘ Cultural icon

A cultural icon is an artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture. The process of identification is subjective, and "icons" are judged by the extent to which they can be seen as an authentic proxy of that culture. When individuals perceive a cultural icon, they relate it to their general perceptions of the cultural identity represented. Cultural icons can also be identified as an authentic representation of the practices of one culture by another.

In the media, many items and persons of popular culture have been called "iconic" despite their lack of durability, and the term "pop icon" is often now used synonymously. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused.

The values, norms and ideals represented by a cultural icon vary both among people who subscribe to it, and more widely among other people who may interpret cultural icons as symbolising quite different values. Thus an apple pie is a cultural icon of the United States, but its significance varies among Americans.

National icons can become targets for those opposing or criticising a regime, for example, crowds destroying statues of Vladimir Lenin in Eastern Europe after the Revolutions of 1989 or burning the American flag to protest American actions abroad.

Religious icons can also become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined, such as representations of the Madonna in societies with a strong Catholic tradition.


1. Examples

In England

A web-based survey was set up in 2006 allowing the public to nominate their ideas for national icons of England, and the results reflect the range of different types of icons associated with an English view of English culture. Some examples are:

  • Red telephone box;
  • Cup of tea for the British tea drinking habit;
  • The Supermarine Spitfire, a World War II fighter aircraft, used by the Royal Air Force
  • Big Ben the nickname for the bell, but widely recognised as the Elizabeth Tower of the Houses of Parliament in London;
  • Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus;

In Russia

Matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. In the former Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle symbol and statues of Vladimir Lenin instead represented the countrys most prominent cultural icons.


2. Criticism

Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become very common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some. For example, a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls "iconic" "a word that makes my flesh creep", a word "pressed into service to describe almost anything." The Christian Examiner nominates "iconic" in its list of overused words, finding over 18.000 "iconic" references in news stories alone, with another 30.000 for "icon", including its use for SpongeBob SquarePants.


3. Bibliography

  • Gilbert, Erik 2008. The Dhow as Cultural Icon. Boston University. * Heyer, Paul 2012. Titanic Century: Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Praeger.
  • Meyer, Denis C. 2010. Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles. Hachette.
  • Biedermann, Hans 1994. Dictionary of Symbolism: Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them. Meridan.
  • Nelkin, Dorothy; M Susan Lindee 2004. The DNA Mystique: The Gene as a Cultural Icon. University of Michigan Press.
  • Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J 2003. Platos Timaeus as Cultural Icon. University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Foudy, Julie; Leslie Heywood; Shari L Dworkin 2003. Built to Win: The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. University of Minnesota Press.
  • Brooker, Will 2001. Batman Unmasked: Analysing a Cultural Icon. Continuum.
  • Heyer, Paul 2012. Titanic Century: Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Praeger.
  • Edwards, Peter; Enenkel, Karl; Graham, Elspeth, eds. 2011. The Horse as Cultural Icon: The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. Brill.

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