ⓘ Evasion (ethics)


ⓘ Evasion (ethics)

In ethics, evasion is an act that deceives by stating a true statement that is irrelevant or leads to a false conclusion. For instance, a man knows that another man is in a room in the building because he heard him, but in answer to a question, says, "I have not seen him," thereby falsely implying that he does not know.

Evasion is described as a way to fulfill an obligation to tell the truth while keeping secrets from those not entitled to know the truth, but is considered unethical unless there are grave reasons for withholding the truth. Evasions are closely related to equivocations and mental reservations; indeed, some statements fall under both descriptions.


1. Question dodging

Question dodging is a rhetorical technique involving the intentional avoidance of answering a question. This may occur when the person questioned either does not know the answer and wants to avoid embarrassment, or when the person is being interrogated or questioned in debate, and wants to avoid giving a direct response. Overt question dodging can sometimes be employed humorously, in order to sidestep giving a public answer in a political discussion: when a reporter asked Mayor Richard J. Daley why Hubert Humphrey had lost the state of Illinois in the 1968 presidential election, Daley replied "He lost it because he didnt get enough votes." Often the aim of dodging a question is to make it seem as though the question was fulfilled, leaving the person who asked the question feeling satisfied with the answer, unaware that the question was not properly answered. A false accusation of question dodging can sometimes be made as a disingenuous tactic in debate, in the informal fallacy of the loaded question. A common way out of this argument is not to answer the question e.g. with a simple yes or no, but to challenge the assumption behind the question. This can lead the person questioned to be accused of "dodging the question".

In the context of political discourse, evasion is a technique of equivocation that is important for face management.


2. Evasion techniques

Peter Bull identified the following evasion techniques for answering questions:

  • requesting clarification
  • Acknowledging the question without answering it
  • Questioning the question by
  • reflecting the question back to the questioner, for example saying "you tell me"
  • Ignoring the question
  • "the question is based on a false premise"
  • "the question includes a quotation taken out of context"
  • "the question includes a misquotation"
  • "the question fails to address the important issue"
  • "the question is hypothetical or speculative"
  • "the question is factually inaccurate"
  • Attacking the question by saying
  • "the question is based on a false alternative"
  • "the question is objectionable"
  • saying "I cant speak for someone else"
  • placing the responsibility to answer on someone else
  • Attacking the questioner
  • pleading ignorance
  • being unwilling to answer
  • deferring answer, saying "it is not possible to answer the question for the time being"
  • Declining to answer by
  • refusing on grounds of inability
  • role of tax havens. TJN maps, analyses and explains the impacts of tax evasion tax avoidance and tax competition and supports the engagement of citizens
  • anti - corruption efforts of all levels of tax administration Auditing of major tax evasion cases, and supervising and evaluating the audit performance of all levels
  • Justice. Leveson chaired the public inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the British press, prompted by the News of the World phone hacking affair
  • representing the 111th District from 2008 to 2012, who has been convicted for tax evasion Fresen was born in Miami and attended Florida State University, receiving
  • and CREA co - founder Gale Norton. She pleaded guilty in June 2007 to tax evasion and obstructing the United States Senate investigation into the Jack Abramoff
  • philosopher. She is the S.J.P. Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics in the Philosophy and Psychology Departments at the University of Pennsylvania
  • Mitchell, TD, established the existence of a culture of encouraging tax evasion within Irish banks, which had allowed wealthy customers to set up non - resident
  • Alliance. Green s most widely read philosophical book is probably The Human Evasion which has been translated into Dutch, German, Italian, and Russian. Its
  • The French Commission on renewal and ethics in public life in French Commission sur la renovation et la deontologie de la vie publique nicknamed Jospin
  • charges on March 23, 2007. On June 8, 2007, Federici pleaded guilty to tax evasion and obstruction of justice. On June 26 Griles was sentenced to a 30, 000

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